Saturday, December 28, 2019

The Rise Of The 19th Century - 1875 Words

The 19th century was a time of great innovation and rapid industrialization. The industry of iron and steel was generating new construction materials, while railroads were being connected across the United States. But one of the most used resources in the world now was discovered, oil as a source of fuel. In 1901, a gigantic geyser of oil erupted from a drilling site at Spindletop Hill, Texas. The spout reached a height of more than 150 feet and produced close to 100,000 barrels a day. This was the most powerful â€Å"gusher† ever seen before by the world. Soon a thriving oil industry formed around the oil field at Spindletop. Many of our current oil companies can trace their roots back there, such as Gulf Oil, Texaco and†¦show more content†¦Even better than expansion it would aid in the development of airplanes and automobiles. By the late 20th century, oil refining, chemicals and petrochemicals continued to dominate Texas industry, though electronics, aerospace and other high-tech fields had increased in importance. (staff H. , Oil companies get a bad reputation, but within reason. When you hear people speak of them they may be referred to as those â€Å"damn corporations†. However, they are extremely important for our economy, they provide the energy that fuels our world. But with great importance has to come great responsibility. The major oil companies are not exactly admirable when it comes to human rights, pollution, or general corporate responsibility. These companies violate human rights all over the world, they aren’t concerned about the environment and more so then less show a lack of corporate responsibility. Of course the oil giants aren’t the only ones dealing with resentment and controversy from the general public. They are however they most target and recognized for it. (Bhandari, 2014) ExxonMobil is the top contender for the worst offences, when it comes to ethical issues. They are known for blatant disregard of corporate responsibility, the rights of humans, and environmental conservation. When it comes to environmental affairs they are number 6 for the highest contributors of airborne pollutants. (Bhandari, 2014)In the last 25

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Technology Plagiarism Essay - 1934 Words

Plagiarism by Technology In todays technology driven world, many people are using the internet to fulfill their personal, professional, and educational goals. Technological advances make the internet easily accessible, from a variety of locations, for many people seeking education online. There are many online courses offered and many of the assignments place emphasis on the use of the internet as an information resource. This emphasis can be overwhelming to any student and lead to intentional or unintentional dishonest acts, on behalf of the student, including plagiarism. What is plagiarism? Plagiarism occurs when someone uses someone elses words or ideas and claims them as their own. This is becoming more common in competitive,†¦show more content†¦In the online environment, the opportunity for academic dishonesty is higher than in the regular classroom. One instructor is in charge of monitoring discussions, class-work, preparing assignments and grading within the same tig ht deadlines those students are given. This makes it extremely difficult for an instructor to monitor every students work. Instructors cannot be certain that the assignments turned in by any student are the students own work unless they become familiar with the students style of completing assignments. With the fast pace of the online education environment, the instructor may have difficulty getting to know all students style of work in such a short time. With the abundance of information available online, a student has many opportunities to find an article and claim it as his or her own. With a simple change of words and style, tracking the rightful author of any article is almost impossible. According to Baron Crooks, in one example of plagiarism, uncovered at Baker College in Michigan, an online instructor noticed marked improvement in one students work while reviewing assignments. Upon further inspection, the instructor noticed that the paper contained almost no citations, so the instructor entered the text into an internet search engine, and found that the student had copied eight pages directly from aShow MoreRelatedAcademic Dishonesty: Applying Technology in Plagiarism1564 Words   |  7 Pagesdishonesty, specifically cheating and plagiarism, recently has increased in popularity. Students often justify unethical academic behavior. Technological innovations, like the cellular telephone, have provided students with new methods of cheating. Plagiarism has also been influenced through technologies, specifically internet companies have emerged that provide unethical solutions to academic assignments. â€Æ' Academic Dishonesty: Applying Technology to Cheat Defined as any â€Å"theft of ideasRead More Process Essay - How to Reduce Plagiarism and Cheating706 Words   |  3 PagesProcess Essay - How to Reduce Plagiarism and Cheating Recent studies have shown that a steadily growing number of students cheat or plagiarize in college -- and the data from high schools suggest that this number will continue to rise. A study by Don McCabe of Rutgers University showed that 74 percent of high school students admitted to one or more instances of serious cheating on tests. Even more disturbing is the way that many students define cheating and plagiarism. For example, they believeRead More Plagiarism On The Increase Essay1236 Words   |  5 Pages Plagiarism seems to be an increasing problem in todays society, especially on college and university campuses, with the immense resources presently available to people. Previously, individuals were restricted to finding information in resources such as books, magazines, journals, encyclopedias and newspapers, but with the technology and the growth and popularity of the Internet, plagiarism has truly become an issue. There seems to be a direct correlation with the increasing use of the InternetRead MorePlagiarism And Its Impact On Ethics939 Words   |  4 PagesPlagiarism â€Å"Plagiarism is defined as the borrowing of ideas, opinions, examples, key words, phrases, sentences, paragraphs, or even structure from another person s work, including work written or produced by others without proper acknowledgment.† - The definiton of plagiarism is taken from the mentioned link : Is it ubiquitous in education sector ? Well ,Yes ! The internet is taken by storm on the number of research papers, articles and blogs onRead MoreMusic: Which Cultures are Known for Plagiarism? Essay1196 Words   |  5 Pages Plagiarism is merely theft, it is the worst kind of stealing where a person takes the intellectual property/ ideas of another person and tries to pass them as his own, in other words it is simply cheating on oneself and others. Plagiarism occurs in many fields such as writing, technology, play production, architecture and many others†¦ But in this essay we are going to focus on plagiarism in music , specially that in the Arab world people are still ignorant of such kind of plagiarism, and thereRead MorePlagiarism And The Teacher And Student1743 Words   |  7 Pages What is plagiarism? There is no one definition that all teachers believe in. During this paper, I will explore some of the possible answers to this question. Once the teacher has the definition that is used by their school and what they believe it means there is a process that needs to be completed in order to have the students to not commit this error in their judgment. There are many steps that can be taken between the teacher and student so that they all know what needs to be done. BeforeRead MoreEssay on How to Avoid Plagiarism1228 Words   |  5 PagesAvoid Plagiarism Plagiarism is a growing problem in universities (Matheson Starr 2013) and becoming too common in the scientific world (Ober et al. 2012). Hence it is important for students as well as researchers to know how to avoid plagiarism. Before discussing the ways to avoid plagiarism, this paper discusses the definition, the types and reasons for plagiarism. â€Å"Copying’ or â€Å"borrowing† someone else’s words or ideas may perhaps be the more inoffensive way of explaining plagiarism. HoweverRead More Plagiarism Essay1731 Words   |  7 PagesPlagiarism missing works cited Plagiarism is a distinguished sounding word. One would almost think that it sounds like some lofty philosophical ideal named for the great Greek teacher Plagiarus, something to be aspired to. This is not so. Plagiarism is in fact a moral misdemeanor, and an academic felony. By definition, plagiarism is a piece of writing that has been copied from someone else and is presented as being your own work. Socrates, Plato and Aristotle would have frowned on such a practiceRead MoreEssay on Turnitin: Hypocrisy of Its Own1277 Words   |  6 PagesOver the centuries, teachers and professors all have had a problem with academic dishonesty. The advancement in technology has made plagiarizing so much easier, and because of this, many professors have resorted to using software programs which detects any sort of plagiarism. One popular program many professors are enforcing their students to use is When a paper is submitted into Turnitin, the program compares it to previous submitte d essays saved in its database and the content availableRead MoreOvercoming Plagiarism Essay1247 Words   |  5 Pages Plagiarism is an ever-increasing problem throughout the world today, as the internet, along with technology such as Iphones and Tablets, has made accessing another person’s useful work as easy as typing a few words into a search bar. Pirating that work is then a simple matter of â€Å"cutting and pasting†. Similarly, advanced word processors have provided a stress-free way of integrating another’s writing into one’s own, or editing a plagiarized work so that it is more difficult to detect. However

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

How to Report Earthquake Damages in the Income Statement free essay sample

The Financial Accounting Standards Board Accounting Standards Codification states that: Extraordinary items shall be segregated from the results of ordinary operations and shown separately in the income statement, with disclosure of the nature and amounts thereof. (225-20-45-9) AND Descriptive captions and the amounts for individual extraordinary events or transactions shall be presented, preferably on the face of the income statement, if practicable; otherwise disclosure in related notes is acceptable. The nature of an extraordinary event or transaction and the principal items entering into the determination of an extraordinary gain or loss shall be described. The income taxes applicable to extraordinary items shall be disclosed on the face of the income statement; alternatively, disclosure in the related notes is acceptable. Considering all of the above information my recommendations include: †¢ Report all damages separately from net income. †¢ Report as an extraordinary item. †¢ Disclose in a note: 1. The nature of the extraordinary event. We will write a custom essay sample on How to Report Earthquake Damages in the Income Statement or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page 2. The determination of how we came about deciding to classify as an extraordinary item. 3. Captions and amounts of extraordinary loss. (Including store damages, and losses due to the store being closed). I look forward to speaking with you further on the matter. Enclosures: Works Cited and Example Resources. Works Cited Spiceland, David, Sepe, Jim, Nelson, Mark. Intermediate Accounting. 6th ed. McGraw- Hill/Irwin. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2011. Print Financial Accounting Standards Board Accounting Standards Codification.

Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Defining Happy free essay sample

Others can be testified with Just having their loved ones around with very little material things. According to the free dictionary by Farley, to be happy means to be fortunate and lucky. What does that meaning suggest? Is It persuading that only the lucky people can be happy? My response to that definition would be it is very wrong. Even the lucky ones are not happy or satisfied. At the end of the day, each person can be happy from their own satisfactions. Secondly, being happy can be defined as a feeling of Joy. How does joy relates to happiness? Joy relates to happiness because Joy is a feeling of great pleasure.When a person has joy, they are happy. People have Joy when good things happen in their life. Whether it is having success, marriage, or the birth of a newborn baby, all of those events can bring great Joy to someone. We will write a custom essay sample on Defining Happy or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page When someone achieved something great, sometimes they do not always have to be rewarded. It is Just the known fact of knowing they accomplished something good. That can bring great joy and happiness to someones life. Another way of defining happy is if a person is delighted. Being delighted is to be highly pleased. What can you think of, which you can say, you were very pleased bout?Passing a test or getting a good grade can make someone very pleased with themselves. A pleased individual equals a happy person. Some people show emotions by showing they are happy and delighted while others choose to hide their expressions. Deferent people react different ways but can have the same outlook on something. In conclusion, happy can be defined In so many ways from various perspectives. Perhaps, being healthy is all it takes for someone to be happy while another needs a lot of money to be happy. What does It take for you to be happy? It Is very easy to sake me happy.I live to put a smile on others and make others happy. That makes me happy and pleased to know that I help someone else. Also, being around my family makes me happy. One thing that everyone might can agree on and that Is being happy Is good for the soul. Defining Happy By speedometers lucky. What does that meaning suggest? Is it persuading that only the lucky people can be happy? My response to that definition would be it is very wrong. Even the Secondly, being happy can be defined as a feeling of Joy. How does Joy relates to a person has Joy, they are happy.People have Joy when good things happen in their life. Whether it is having success, marriage, or the birth off newborn baby, all of knowing they accomplished something good. That can bring great Joy and happiness expressions. Different people react different ways but can have the same outlook on In conclusion, happy can be defined in so many ways from various perspectives. Lot of money to be happy. What does it take for you to be happy? It is very easy to family makes me happy. One thing that everyone might can agree on and that is being happy is good for the soul.

Thursday, November 28, 2019

The Next Alternative Fuel

Biodiesel This domestically formed fuel produces uncontaminated burning effect and thus a renewable alternative for the petroleum products. It mainly comes from vegetable oils and fats from animals (Dale, p 14). The effectiveness is measurable by the energy security, health or environmental protection, safety and performance of the engine.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Next Alternative Fuel specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Benefits of biodiesel U.S. imports a surplus of 60% petroleum energy majority of which is gasoline and diesel for vehicles. The political volatility of the petroleum producers means that the source is insecure thus the high venerability to disruption of supplies (Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC), p 4). With domestically produced biodiesel as a substitute, the insecurity of supply becomes less. During combustion, biodiesel does not emit hydrocarbons and other harm ful products like carbon monoxide, greenhouse gases, sulphites and particulate like the mined petroleum products. Scientifically it reduces carbon dioxide emission by over 75%. The bio fuels improve engine performance by providing the lubricating effects, thus preventing the engine parts from wearing out (Dale, p 15). Diesel fuels have reduced sulphur thus the low lubricating ability. Lastly, the non-toxic nature of biodiesel enhances user and environmental protection in cases of spills. It is also less combustible and therefore enhances more safety during handling, transportation and storage. Hydrogen Hydrogen is scientifically the most abundant and simple element of the earth. It emanates from the biomass, fossil fuels and ionized water. These are renewable sources, thus the probability of having non-pollutants and alternative for the imported petroleum products (Hordeski, p.2). Benefits of Hydrogen Its greenhouse and exhaust gas emission is almost zero and is a domestic product f rom natural sources such as wind, biomass, coal, solar, natural gas or nuclear energy. The fuel is thus safe for the environment and users due to none emission property especially when production is from low or none-toxicant sources such as nuclear energy, fossil fuels, solar or wind. The hydrogen fuel provides ways of utilizing the renewable energy sources. Electricity With the high number of electric or hybrid vehicles, there are high probabilities of use particularly for the short distance drives (Simon, p 74). Other alternatives are the fuel cells for converting hydrogen chemicals and storing electric energy production from the vehicle’s board.Advertising Looking for essay on environmental studies? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Benefits of Electricity The electric vehicles have no exhaust carbon emissions. The cost of electricity varies depending on the location, source and time of usage thus more reasonable than the petroleum products. There is also easy access due to generalized outlets from various locations including home. Natural Gas This is the naturally available burning fuel commonly compressed for household use (Hordeski, p.2). Its usage for vehicles would secure the fuel energy due to local production and improve environment and public health due to lack of substance emissions except water. It reduces dependency on foreign imports thus increasing security. Production of natural gas causes zero emissions as well. Propane Propane is ‘liquefied petroleum gas’ (LPG) for high levelled energy requirements such as in flights. The use of this source would increase fuel security and promote zero emissions due to clean burning or provision of high performance benefits. Best alternative for the future Hydrogen fuel is the most preferable future fuel because of its availability, high power efficiency especially for the ‘fuel cell vehicles’, as well as low intoxication to people and the environment. Beside vehicles, hydrogen fuels are also sources for stationary applications such as generators for electric production, thus a fuel for the entire economy. Hydrogen technologies will give U.S. benefits that are more economical. According to Hordeski (p.2), hydrogen is better than electric fuel because production of electricity causes carbon emissions. As an alternative, propane production is more expensive and requires engine conversions to accommodate propane combustion. Works Cited Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC). Energy Efficiency Renewable Energy. U.S. Department of Energy, 5 April 2101. Web.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Next Alternative Fuel specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Dale, Bruce. Thinking clearly about bio fuels: ending the irrelevant ‘net energy’ debate and developing better performance metrics for alternative fuels. 1 (1), 14-17. September 2007. Print. Hordeski, Michael. Alternative fuels: the future of hydrogen. Georgia, GA: Fairmont Press Inc. 2009. Print. Simon, Christopher. Alternative energy: political, economic, and social feasibility. Plymouth, U.K: ROWMAN LITTLEFIELD Publishers, Inc. 2007. Print. This essay on The Next Alternative Fuel was written and submitted by user Deborah Vega to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Dealing With Stress essays

Dealing With Stress essays Stress is a word many people can relate to, either through school, traffic, or work. It is an everyday thing everyone has to deal with no matter who he or she might be. Ultimately, if not properly dealt with, stress may in some extreme cases, even lead to death. Stress can be dealt with in various ways. If not dealt with in a positive matter, stress will lead to negative results. Therefore, the way we deal with stress is the main factor in getting rid of it. The word school, in itself, entails many worries. Some of those worries include grades, assignments, but most importantly financial debt. For example, studying for chemistry and calculus midterms all in the same week can really put a burden on a student. On top of the stress the class gives students, they know they're at least 300 dollars in debt for the class regardless of their final grade. Many deal with these problems in the wrong way. They get frustrated and start to believe they are wasting their time, and most importantly their money. A student dealing with this sort of situation may actually go as far as to consider dropping out of school. A positive way of dealing with this school related stress is to utilize money and time wisely by setting a schedule. An example of such a schedule may be prioritizing schoolwork and then putting extra-curricular activities where and if time allows. Another positive way of dealing with the pressures from school would be to listen to music right before class to relax and even give some motivation for the upcoming class. Moreover, another type of stress is road rage. Having encountered and been under the influence of road rage myself, I can say that traffic can really stress a person out. Imaging cutting someone off by accident and then he or she comes along and deliberately uses his or her vehicle as a weapon. Then there are those that just have to scream out obscenities and make obscene gestures. ...

Thursday, November 21, 2019

W7 Case Study Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

W7 Case Study - Assignment Example Sometimes being honest is not what sells. In this case it is important and helpful to have a professional code of ethics. A code of ethics makes sure that marketers are keeping ethics in mind and the consumers are being protected. Anyone can make a claim about a product or service to make a sale but consumers need to know that the claims are true. Keeping true to a code of ethics allows marketers to make correct choices. An ethics officer has an important role in a corporation. An ethics officer is the mentor of the corporation. The ethics officer must mentor to show a good example. An ethics officer also takes on the role as the enforcer. The ethics officer must enforce the code of ethics. This role is important because anyone can tell others what to do and hope that they listen, unfortunately it does not always work this way and someone must be there to enforce. Finally, an ethics officer needs to be open and available to answer questions. There are necessary fundamental building blocks to ensure a good, comprehensive ethics program. The ethics program must be able to be used to educate employees. These building blocks include a way to show employees that honesty is vital. It is also important to let employees know that the corporation cares about problems and want to know what can be done to make a difference. As part of fundamental building blocks, employees need to be ensured that making the correct ethical decisions can improve their employee status. Online marketing opens a whole new world of marketing. With this, companies are able to target a new market. Targeting a new market means a new set of issues related to making ethical marketing decisions. These issues are surrounded around trust. When you cannot see things face to face, how can you trust that it is real and ethical? Other issues associated with online marketing include, targeting an unknown

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Aristotles View on the Natural of Teleology Essay

Aristotles View on the Natural of Teleology - Essay Example In this first argument, Aristotle draws to the comparison of rainfall and existent of animal parts which seems to be the most disputed contents in Aristotelian Corpus. In his argument, Aristotle tries to develop a final causation with regard to nature. Aristotle discusses the subject of natural teleology as a result of his predecessors trying to trace the final causation. The predecessors believe that things exist the way they as a result of necessity. This necessity includes the material elements that exist on their own natures and potentials. However, according to Aristotle, his predecessors describe natural phenomena with a focus on necessity. For Aristotle, his main focus is to establish the existence of other causes other than the material necessity. Since nature is a source of change, it acts to serve something; therefore, Aristotle is on the view that teleology and necessity tend to be related (Asanuma, 2011). Regarding how Aristotle distinguishes his teleological view concerning nature and the views associated with his opponents, it is clear that Aristotle considers his view and those of his opponents to be incompatible. As such, Aristotle disagrees with the view material necessity operates in nature and does not require operations associated with teleology. On another note, these two forces associated with nature could be compatible; however, operations associated with material necessity may not be sufficient when it comes to producing positive results. The natural phenomena may not come about with the absence of a final cause, as such, explanations related to formal and final causation should not be reduced to explanations focusing on efficiency and material causation. While there is a school of thought that concur necessity and teleology seems compatible with regard to Aristotle’s view, this can only happen with the absence of ontological consequences (Krbalek & Vacek, 2013).  Ã‚  

Sunday, November 17, 2019

The price of diamonds is too high Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

The price of diamonds is too high - Essay Example Before the 19th century, diamond minerals were known to be rare as it was found in India and Brazil. During 1870 large mines for diamond deposits were discovered in South Africa at place near orange. Such became a threat to the few diamond producers despite the large supply thus made the commodity a luxury instead of a commodity. At the year 1888, a body was formed known as De Beers Consolidated mines in South Africa by suppliers in order to secure a high market for diamond prices. Initially, diamond cartel controlled successfully the supply worldwide regulation done at mine output and purchase of the exclusive right to mining nations across Africa. At the onset of 20th century, DE beers dominated around 90 percent trade for diamond internationally. In 1930, there was a decline in the diamond demand, causing the son of De beers to initiate an advertising agency that incorporated an advertising strategy to target young men in order to purchase a ring for engagement in order to become a form of acceptance during courtship declaration. Through such strategy, diamond price rose, unlike other minerals. Currently, the cartel dominates in approximately two thirds of the diamond (Diamond, 1971). According to pricing theory consideration, is on economic activity due to creation and transfer of value. That covers the trading of goods and services on economic agents that are distinctive. Such explains the high cost of the diamond in comparison with water .this depends on the utility of particular purpose and purchasing power of goods that the object possesses. Such is known as the value exchange and uses in value. Minerals such as diamond derive its value due to scarcity nature and labour intensity required to extract such minerals. The labour involved forms a basic unit the exchange process of value of goods. That will be of great significance to determine overall prices. Thus, the nominal price according to Bagweel & Riordan (1991) has a

Friday, November 15, 2019

Analysis Of Qt Sydney Hotel Marketing Mix Marketing Essay

Analysis Of Qt Sydney Hotel Marketing Mix Marketing Essay Marketing is often thought to be only selling and advertising. However, marketing consists of many other functions that can be seen far more important than just the exchange of goods. (Kotler Amrstrong 2004: 5) The American Marketing Association defines marketing as follows: Marketing is the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners and society at large. (Middleton et al. 2009: 21) The marketing strategies for the hotel industry are significant and can make an enormous difference between empty rooms and a superlatively booked hotel. The hotel marketing strategy should cover every area of marketing, advertising and its communication from online to direct in person face to face tactics. The business should try identifying its key target market, chalk out a meaningful marketing strategy and where it wants to position itself in the market. QT Sydney Hotel market Like the other hotels, QT Sydney Hotel targets people of sustainable age groups who can easily support themselves. Determining the right and meaningful target market is crucial. When defining a target market of a hotel such as QT Sydney Hotel, we can assume that the categorization can be done in three separate levels. The first level consists of customers who are willing to book a room and also have the resources to book the hotel premises. The second level consists of customers who have the resources to book the room but not necessarily the desire. The third level consists of customers who are not able to buy but if monitored can change their willingness and be able to book the hotel room later According to, the most important target market of the hotel should be professional visitors to the hotel from the following industries: Education, Travel trade and commerce IT industry; Automotive. Local businesses and countless firms can also be targeted for a full day use of facilities in the premises such as conference rooms, room nights for visiting executives and long stay professional guests. Market segmentation and the bases that QT Sydney Hotel uses Market segmentation recognizes that people differ in many ways like in their needs, attitudes and lifestyles. (Middleton et al. 2009: 97) Through market segmentation companies divide their market into smaller segments. All of the segments have specific needs and by dividing the market those needs can be met more efficiently with products and services that match their unique needs. (Kotler 2004: 239) There are many ways the hotel can use to segment its market. Different segmentation variables are used, both individually and in groups as a whole, in order to classify consumers into different segments. According to Kotler, four major variables that are generally used in market segmentation are: geographic, demographic, psychographic and behavioral variables. Geographical segmentation divides the market into different geographical units such as cities, regions, countries or climate and population density. By this way when a hotel is deciding in which areas to operate and market, they can direct their efforts to geographical differences in needs and wants of the people of that region. For example Sydney QT Hotel can pay attention to their premises in northern areas where it is colder and have a state of the art centralized heating mechanisms as compared to the hotel premises in the South. (Kotler 2004:239) Demographic segmentation is based on the market divided into groups based on age, gender, family size, income, profession, education, religion, race and nationality. This segmentation is one of the most popular and effective bases for segmenting customer groups for the hotel industry. This is wholly and exclusively because the customer wants are closely interrelated to its dependants such as income and age. (Kotler 2004: 240-241) Based on different variables further such as social class, lifestyle, and individual personality characteristics, psychographic segmentation is ones of its kinds for the hotel industry in which QT Sydney hotel operates. For instance, people may live in the same city, be of the same age but one of them can be a student while the other can be a businessman. This segmentation affects their lifestyles greatly and therefore also has an effect on the buying behaviors and renting rooms of the people. The hotel needs to tailor its strategy according to each different segmentation to yield the utmost benefits for the customers and the hotel itself. Behavioral segmentation categorizes the customers into categories based on their knowledge, attitudes, uses and responses to a product. This category of segmentation particularly has the benefit that are inexplicably linked to the hotel industry itself. When the hotel knows when and why the customers are bookings its premises and its rooms, they can relate their marketing tactics to it. For example some holidays like on Valentines Day or at Christmas people tend to book hotel rooms and halls for exclusive parties and social gatherings, the hotel can benefit maximum from the situation and prepare special offers and communications to its customers. (Kotler 2004: 244) In hospitality industry these same segmentation variables can be used but there is also a wide range of subgroups that for example almost all of the hotels use. Hotels like Sydnet QT Hotel should usually use only one variable when segmenting these subgroups and that is the purpose of travel. By defining the purpose of hotels can classify many subgroups such as corporate/business clients, visitors on group package tours, independent and leisure vacationers. By acknowledging different segments a hotel can target their services more effectively. (Middleton et al. 2009: 97-99) Target Market coverage strategy Relationship marketing can be a unique form of marketing that emphasizes customer retention and their greater satisfaction and their value of money services. It shifts the paradigm focus from the recruitment of new customer to the retention and recovery of existing ones. Relationship marketing differs from other forms of marketing in that it recognizes the long-term value of customer relationships and extends communication. (Middleton et al. 2009: 92) When planning g a relationship marketing strategy hotel QT Sydney must take into account that not all customers want a relationship with the hotel. That is why it must be carefully considered which types of customers are usually more likely to repeat their visit to the hotel. While most hotel websites include Face book, Twitter and LinkedIn follow-us buttons, the ability to engage and convert anonymous visitors into customers is still an elusive goal for many. However, the hotels must try to engage their customers and facilitate them to yield the meaningful results and profits from the marketing strategy. As the hospitality industry is beginning to learn social media and its impact on their return on investment, they are venturing more into adapting to the newer technology and capturing the customers needs. The social media that is integrated in a natural way and is used to communicate with guests during the travel cycle is much more impactful.   Another most popular form of relationship marketing is to gather information from the customers about their stay and whether they had any complaints or suggestions for improvement. Internal marketing is also an extension of a marketing strategy that considers the importance of the service of the hotel employees while interacting with customers Better pricing strategy can be another tactic the hotel can use to penetrate in the market and attract more visitors and enhance the loyalty of the existing customer. It can also be linked to overcome the challenge of low customer seasons at the hotel. The daily rate could for example change based on the occupancy of the hotel or there could be a more efficient way of boosting the sales before hand when there are low customer flows coming to the hotel. Section 2 : Analysis of QT Sydney Hotel Marketing Mix The marketing mix is one of the major concepts in modern marketing and is often brought up in general discussions of marketing. Marketing mix is a set of marketing tools that a company uses to pursue its marketing objectives in the target market. (Kotler 2004: 56-57) When a company is making decisions on marketing they generally fall into four controllable categories known as the 4 Ps: product, (variety, quality and services) price, (payment period, discounts) place (location, channels and distribution) and promotion (advertising, marketing and sales) The main idea of marketing is to influence and persuade the consumer to buy and use the companys product or service. In order to get customers to do so a company uses the four Ps as a mixture in order to influence the demand for its products. (Kotler 2004: 56-57) In the hospitality industry just the hotel Sydney operates, the products are primarily designed to satisfy the needs and wants of business and leisure travelers/corporate executives. As part of the marketing mix for a hotel room can be seen as a product that the hotel sells to its customers. Although the hotel rooms can vary in quality or in services they offer and are based on the customers need to have the specific type of room. For example a businessman can have different needs from a hotel room (using a conference hall, meeting rooms , lounge for corporate meetings than a leisure traveler or even a corporate executive. In the hospitality industry the place of business is many times the key to success. A hotels location is important for visitors and therefore they usually examine carefully which hotel and where they choose. The location of the hotel affects the transportation possibilities, how accessible it is for example from the airport or the city center. (Bowie Buttle 2004: 26-27) Pricing decisions can greatly affect the the demand and profitability of the hotel . In a hotel setting such as the Sydney QT for example the hotel occupancy rates and special run time offers and discounts for new and existing key customers are crucial and require a lot of attention and careful consideration. Promotion is usually the function of most marketing and sales departments and it includes all the tools that a company can use to communicate with customers. A hotel can for example use different websites, billboards and social media to advertise their products and services and also use brand identification to their advantage. (Bowie Buttle 2004: 28) Brands help consumers to identify what the product or the company is, for example people relate the Hilton Hotel chain with luxury and good quality. They can link the Sydney QT hotel to the same category or even better as a multi-purpose hotel that caters to all of its market That helps the Sydney QT hotel when they are planning their marketing strategy. (Bowie Buttle 2004: 208)

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

The Shattered Dream in Death of a Salesman Essay -- Death Salesman ess

The Shattered Dream in Death of a Salesman  Ã‚        Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In America, anyone with some drive, some talent, and half a brain can be a success.   Or so Willy Loman believes.   Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman tells the story of a man who seems predestined for failure, though he tries his best to succeed. Willy Loman is a symbol for the common man who tries and tries and tries, but is somehow unable to attain the "American Dream" of status and success.     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Miller combines the archetypal tragic hero with the common American citizen. The result is the anti-hero, Willy Loman. He is a simple, unsuccessful salesman whose only goal in life is to become a respected, successful salesman.   Nevertheless, Willy's waning career and old age aren't enough to alert him to the fact that simply being a failure isn't enough; you have to admit the fact to yourself.   As a result, the drama of the play lies not so much in the unfolding of events, but in Willy's deluded perception and recollection of them as the audience gradually witnesses the tragic demise of a helpless man. In creating Willy Loman, Mille... ... ed. Twentieth Century Interpretations of Death of a Salesman. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice, 1983. Miller, Arthur. Death of a Salesman. Literature. Ed. Sylvan Bates New York: Longman, 1997. 1163-1231. Parker, Brian. "Point of View in Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman." University of Toronto Quarterly 35 (1966): 144-47. Rpt. in Koon. 41-55 Stanton, Kay. "Women and the American Dream of Death of a Salesman." Feminist Readings of American Drama. Ed. Judith Schlueter. Rutherford, New Jersey: Fairleigh Dickinson UP, 1989. 67-102.    The Shattered Dream in Death of a Salesman Essay -- Death Salesman ess The Shattered Dream in Death of a Salesman  Ã‚        Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In America, anyone with some drive, some talent, and half a brain can be a success.   Or so Willy Loman believes.   Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman tells the story of a man who seems predestined for failure, though he tries his best to succeed. Willy Loman is a symbol for the common man who tries and tries and tries, but is somehow unable to attain the "American Dream" of status and success.     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Miller combines the archetypal tragic hero with the common American citizen. The result is the anti-hero, Willy Loman. He is a simple, unsuccessful salesman whose only goal in life is to become a respected, successful salesman.   Nevertheless, Willy's waning career and old age aren't enough to alert him to the fact that simply being a failure isn't enough; you have to admit the fact to yourself.   As a result, the drama of the play lies not so much in the unfolding of events, but in Willy's deluded perception and recollection of them as the audience gradually witnesses the tragic demise of a helpless man. In creating Willy Loman, Mille... ... ed. Twentieth Century Interpretations of Death of a Salesman. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice, 1983. Miller, Arthur. Death of a Salesman. Literature. Ed. Sylvan Bates New York: Longman, 1997. 1163-1231. Parker, Brian. "Point of View in Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman." University of Toronto Quarterly 35 (1966): 144-47. Rpt. in Koon. 41-55 Stanton, Kay. "Women and the American Dream of Death of a Salesman." Feminist Readings of American Drama. Ed. Judith Schlueter. Rutherford, New Jersey: Fairleigh Dickinson UP, 1989. 67-102.   

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Macbeth and Disturbed Character

Explore the ways in which Shakespeare and Robert browning present a disturbed character in literacy heritage texts. Robert browning and Shakespeare both use very strong techniques when presenting their characters in the heritage texts â€Å"Macbeth† and â€Å"the laboratory† In this essay I will be exploring the ways in which Browning and Shakespeare both portray disturbed characters. Disturbed characters meaning out of the ordinary, Browning and shakes spear present their characters without following stereotypes. This gives the audience the impression that the characters are disturbed.The play â€Å"Macbeth† features many themes ambition, jealousy, strength but the main theme in this play would be feminism. Macbeth is a play written around the ambition of a woman named â€Å"Lady Macbeth† she and her husband contact spirits who tell her she shall be queen. Lady Macbeth acts very quickly on this fantasy, and swiftly contacts the spirits to change her into a more masculine figure. Shakes spear uses very strong language to show this transformation, he presents Lady Macbeth as a very strong, ambitious character in the first half of the play.We can see evidence of this when he writes â€Å"take my milk for gall†. In the play lady Macbeth changes everything she believes in and breaks every stereotype in historical context about women in order to commit the murder of Duncan. This is ironic because later in the play lady Macbeth has achieved the status she wants as queen, but does not have control of herself; evidence of this is in act 5 scene 1 when Shakespeare writes â€Å"when was the last time she walked† â€Å"her eyes are open†¦But their sense is shut† this tells us she sleep walks and does not have control over her body physically, furthermore lady Macbeth does not have control over her mental state either evidence of this is when Shakespeare writes â€Å"look, how she rubs her hands† this suggest the doctor cannot see the blood on her hands. Further evidence of this is â€Å"there’s knocking on the gate† this tells us Lady Macbeth is hearing things in her head and is conscious of people finding out what she has done.The poem â€Å"the laboratory† is much like Macbeth with themes of jealousy, ambition, strength, respect and the main theme of feminism. â€Å"The laboratory† is a poem written in the 1800’s about a woman names Marie who seeks revenge on her cheating husband and the other women involved â€Å"Pauline†, she plans to poison Pauline. Browning presents Marie as a very ambitious character throughout the entire poem, we know she is ambitious because Browning writes â€Å"pound at thy powder† and â€Å"to carry pure death in an earring† he uses very fragmented, violent speech for Marie, making her seem like a very strong, ambitious character.The play was written in the 1800’s and is themed around historical con text, this makes the poem ironic because women were expected to have a lot of respect for each other and work together because they all had equally no rights. This is ironic because Pauline shows no respect for Marie’s marriage in the first place, but then Marie carries this on by showing no sympathy or respect for Pauline and takes her life. Shake spear and browning both use strong language techniques to portray disturbed characters in there texts.Both use fragmented speak and repeating key phases, there are many examples of this in Macbeth act 5 scene 1 when Shakespeare writes â€Å"come ,come, come† and â€Å"to bed, to bed†. In this scene lady Macbeth also talks in a very quick and short manner this gives the impression that her mind is very jumbled furthermore this could imply she has a lot to say but not enough time to say it all. This then portrays her as a disturbed character. In â€Å"the laboratory† browning uses repetition to portray Marie as d isturbed character. Examples are â€Å"her head, her breast and her arms†. Browning also uses very dark and devilish speech in his poem.Examples of this are â€Å"devils smithy† â€Å"empty church† â€Å"pure death in an earring† using language like this at the start of the poem gives the entire poem a devilish feel, it could also symbolise what Marie is thinking, she only thinks evil things ;this then portraying her as a disturbed character. This language makes the audience aware that the poem is full of sinister and evil things. Macbeth and the laboratory have very similar themes. They are very much the same in the terms feminism and use of context. Both women in the texts going against ordinary acts of women in that period, this making them disturbed.Furthermore both women are also fighting for power, lady Macbeth is fighting to achieve her status as queen where as Marie is fighting for power in her marriage, this also makes them similar because they b oth end up in a broken relationship in the end. Both texts are set in similar settings the laboratory is set in a dark â€Å"devils† workshop and Macbeth is set in a dark room on a dark night, this giving the audience a very dark and sinister feeling about the texts. Lady Macbeth and Marie are very different in the way of the emotions and feeling.Firstly in â€Å"Macbeth† lady Macbeth tell the audience her thoughts and feelings making her seem open and feminine even though she had asked the spirits to â€Å"unsex† herself. Whereas Marie did not show any true feminine emotions. Marie does not feel guilt and says towards the end of the poem â€Å"next moment I dance at the kings† and â€Å"brush this dust off me† this shows that she does not feel guilt and has no regrets in her doings. However half of Macbeth features lady Macbeth after she has killed and she feels deep remorse, there is evidence of this when she says â€Å"the thane of fife had a w ife, where is she now?†.As the audience we also see more implicit evidence of this when lady Macbeth says â€Å"yet here’s a spot† this presenting lady Macbeth as disturbed because she has gone insane from the guilt. I think both pieces of text were influenced very strongly through the writer’s present context; this is why both of the characters are portrayed as disturbed in the text. They are portrayed as disturbed because women were generally meant to be meek and mild, but Shakespeare’s and Browning’s presentation of their characters go completely against the contexts and the expectations of women at the time.In conclusion I think lady Macbeth and Marie are both very disturbed characters, but I believe Marie is a more disturbed character because she does not feel guilt or remorse towards the end of the poem. â€Å"The laboratory† also features a lot more sinister text and the writing style is a lot shorter and quick making Marie seam more disturbed. More evidence to make Marie seem disturbed would be because Marie does not require help from the spirits to make her more masculine. She does it all in her own head and does not require help from anyone else is the poem, she does not show any true feminine emotions or feeling in the poem.

Friday, November 8, 2019

Museum Project Essays

Museum Project Essays Museum Project Essay Museum Project Essay 10 November 2010 Museum Project Ansel Adams, The Tetons and The Snake River, Grand Teton National Park. 1942. Gelatin Silver Print. Featured at Phoenix Art Museum. Phoenix, Arizona. Ansel Adams (1902-1984) was born in San Francisco, California. Being raised in the shadows of the great Golden Gate Bridge was the motivation for his deep appreciation for nature and his early childhood would become his primary inspiration to pursue photography. Strangely enough the 1906 earthquake made a permanent mark on him as he was thrown to the ground breaking his nose. When he was 17 he gained his early experience and inspiration by working for the Sierra Club at the Clubs LeConte Memorial Lodge, in Yosemite National Park. Ansel eventually became a photographer for the clubs annual outings. He is best known as a visionary figure for natural photography as well as for his passion in preserving the wilderness. In 1980, Ansel received the prestigious Presidential Medal of Freedom for his efforts to preserve the wilderness. He played a significant role in the environmental consciousness of the United States and his photography, to this day; continue to inspire both artists and conservationist (Adams 6)(Ansel). The genre is photography. The picture is of mountains in the backdrop, with a river flowing in front of it surrounded by forest. The three characteristics to describe the piece would be; perspective, value and composition. From the William Cronon website we learn of the two different perspectives in this photo. The author states that the first is a vantage-point perspective. This perspective gives us a stunning image of the landscape. The second perspective would be the birds-eye perspective where the viewer is distanced from the actual elements in the picture giving them an overall view of the picture (Hung). The print is Geletin Silver, which provides the very rich blacks and grays. The value that is instilled in each part of the print makes the prints beauty just unfold before your eyes, giving you the feeling of almost being there. It value distinguishes the shapes and objects from one another in the photograph. Mr. Adams composition shows how he framed the photo to center the mountain and the river. The river leads our eyes to the mountain or looking down from the mountain to the river flowing in front of us. According to Ansel Adams, the picture represents bringing information about earth to the alien civilization. The purpose is showing what life on earth is. The picture gives us the raw beauty of the Teton Nation Park (Van-buskirk). His love for landscape and nature show as he literally brings this picture alive. To me it shows us what the National Parks were and should always be, left as nature intended them to be. Having an absolute love for nature and photography this picture captured my eye immediately and literally left me in awe. Alfredo Ramos Martin, La Malinche (Young Girl of Yalala Oaxaca). 1940’s. Oil on Canvas. Featured at The Phoenix Art Museum. Phoenix, Arizona. Alfredo Ramos Martinez (1872 – 1946). He was born on November 12, 1872. His parents were from Monterrey Mexico, in the state of Nuevo Leon. His father was a middle-class storekeeper. His mother was very supportive of his artistic endeavors. He became a true artist very early at the young age of 9 by sending a portrait he painted of the governor of Nuevo Leon to a competition in San Antonio, Texas. This portrait won first place! Ramos caught the eye of American Phoebe Hearst by his work of painted ordinary life scenes, which he mastered after getting fed up with the system while attending the prestigious Academia Nacional de Bellas Artes in Mexico City for 8 years. His life scene work was created while he was still at the Academia. He was bored of the current curriculum and during those times where he would wander off tired of drawing from plaster casts is when he began crafting his style. Phoebe is the person who made arrangements to financially support his studies abroad. So in 1897 he went to Paris where he mastered his trade in the streets by embracing the Post-Impressionists style. This is where Ramos started painting on newsprint (Martinez). The genre of this painting is Latin American. The painting is of a young Aztec Indian woman. Three characteristics to describe the piece would be line, shape and color. Ramos is using diagonal lines in the background to draw you into the beautiful girl. His lines will guide you and lead you to the center of the painting, which is the young girl. It will make you command the attention of her, who is his main focus. Ramos further uses large shapes in his portraits, which again demand your attention, making her bold and beautiful. The shapes are large ad organic from the shape of her face to the shape of her lips, and all that are in between. The colors of browns and blacks make the picture warm and comfortable and also represent the genre it is from. It gives you the feeling of being there in the young woman’s culture as those colors represent the Indian culture. The portrait represents a young woman in the Aztec Indian culture as a heroine. It gives us an inside look at the women of this time and culture. His use of colors and boldness represent the strong women in the culture and their beauty, as the true heroines they are not the harlots some made them out to be. This portrait stopped me literally in my footsteps. I had to take a second and even a third look as the boldness, the strength and pure simplicity of the woman in the picture calls out to you demanding your attention. I fell in love at first site (La Malinche). Sandy Skoglund, Fox Games, 1989. Sculpture in clay. Featured at The Denver Art Museum. Denver, Colorado. Sandy Skoglund was born September 11, 1946. She currently resides in New York City where she has a studio and is a teacher at Rutgers University. Most of her childhood was spent in California, where her later work would get its influence. Sandy earned a B. A. from Smith College, where she studied art history and her M. A. and M. F. A. she received from the University of Iowa. She also studied art history at the Sorbonne and Ecole du Louvre in Paris, France during her junior year of college. It was in the late 70’s that Sandy took a new direction when commercial image making inspired her. Her work normally features Surrealist tableaux composed of bright colors and numerous recurring objects. Sandy Skoglund has had her work has been displayed in numerous museums around the country; such as Dayton Art Institute, Denver Art Museum, and the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art. Some of her most famous work is the Radioactive Cats and Revenge of the Goldfish. Sandy will create an environment like Fox Games and then photograph the piece and then exhibit the piece along with the photograph (The Free Library)(Fantasy). The genre of this sculpture: Fox Games, is Modern/Contemporary. The piece or pieces are of gray foxes in red rooms looking for food and playing amongst each other. Three characteristics to describe the piece would be form, texture and color. The form in this piece is the playful foxes, which are made of clay and are three dimensional and they are the visible elements of the piece. These pieces being of clay sculpture also show the texture of the pieces by touching the rough and smooth surfaces. You can also get the visual feel of the texture just by looking at the pieces. You see the lines and carvings in each piece. You can see where the pieces are smooth and rough in the texture of the clay. One of the most visual aspects of these pieces of art is the color and contrast. She uses the color red to represent the fear (the nightmare) while she uses the contrast of the soft gray foxes to give you more of the feeling of calmness (dreamlike). It leaves you feeling a bit confused by which message she is trying to convey. Sandy’s work represents surrealism and conceptualism as stated by The Nelson-Atkins Museum. The Nelson-Atkins Museum goes on to say that the pieces are humorous and inviting into almost a dreamlike interpretation but at the same time representing your worst nightmare (Nelson-Atkins).

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

weapons essays

weapons essays The Revolutionary War and the Civil War may seem very different at first glance due to their differences in time. But actually they were very similar in many ways. One way in which they were so similar is in the weapons they used. Many of the weapons used in the Civil War were either the same or based off of the weapons from the American Revolution. One very important similarity is the use of black gun powder. Black gun powder was the primary source of firing power in both the American Revolution and also the Civil war. It was used to fire all of the artillery and all of the calvery. But a very big problem with black gun powder was that it fouled very fast. This was a major issue because it ment that they could not hold on to it for very long or it would go bad. So they would have to be prepared for those long trips and battles. Black gun powder was also very messy and would get all over the soldiers and there equipment. This kept it very hard for them to stay clean and also sanitary which brought on a lot of disease. Black gun powder played a major role in both wars. The use of black gun powder made the weapons used very similar. Cannons and Howitzers (shorter- barreled cannons with a chamber) were very important weapons in both wars. Cannons were very important to the armies because of there ability to shoot long distances. This made it possible for the armies to have less hand to hand combat. Cannons from both wars were also made from the same materials. Iron and bronze were the most common materials used. Even though cannons were very important in the wars they were also very scarce. The cannons were very heavy and took many horses to move them from battle to battle. This would slow down the troops. So they did not have many cannons if any at all. Howitzers were used mainly by the navy because of there short barrels and chamber at the base of the gun. Th...

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Key Theories of How Strategy is Developed and Implemented and the Assignment

Key Theories of How Strategy is Developed and Implemented and the Relationship between Strategy, Innovation and Change - Assignment Example The researcher states that the development and successful implementation of effective business strategies are often regarded to be one of the most vital functions of organizational management as it supports them to accomplish the determined goals and obtained the desired outcomes. As stated by Johnson, different strategic levels can be witnessed as existing within a particular organization. For instance, corporate level, operational level, and business level can be identified as three broad categories which are often used in theoretical contexts to segregate strategic levels. The concept of corporate-level strategy has been viewed to be primarily concerned with determining the overall scope of a firm and evaluating its business as well as operational performances. Similarly, the business-level strategy signifies the competencies possessed by an organization and thus plays a vital role in assisting the business to defeat its major rivalries in its targeted business markets. Correspond ingly, the notion of operational-level strategy represents the efficiency of an organization to use its valuable operational resources quite effectively with the purpose of attaining the desired business targets in the most convenient way. As affirmed by Johnson, the conception of corporate strategy is typically described as a procedure that supports an organization’s growth in effectively combining the processes performed within the different functional areas of business through which the attainment of the expected business outcomes is likely to become easier. According to Capon, organizations can obtain numerous benefits by adopting as well as implementing effectual business strategies. The common benefits obtained through strategic effectiveness include sustainable growth opportunities through facilitated stakeholder relationship, better community involvement through enhanced communication, an augmented contribution from organizational members to upraise operational perfor mances and consequently, the successful accomplishment of superior competitive positioning.

Friday, November 1, 2019

Individual Differences in Human Sexuality Research Paper - 1

Individual Differences in Human Sexuality - Research Paper Example In addition, some scholars argue that resource allocation under free market is skewed to select sector of the economy. Therefore, government must regulation that can help bridge the gap between the unequal distributions. For this purpose, regulation are important, and help make a better society. In addition, businesses need some regulation to ensure that their operation in done in a cohesive and fair manner. Therefore, government need to regulate unfair completion, as well as malpractices among traders. The debate always revolves for and against legislation in the business world. However, it is the case of how well a politician argue their cases because bot extreme are important when applied moderately. For this reason, it is advisable for the government to interviews in cases that can bring down the economy if left at the hand of business people and corporations (Jarvis, 2011). Government should be allowed to monitor the market and introduce regulations to check

Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Knowledge Management Foundations of IT Systems HW Research Paper

Knowledge Management Foundations of IT Systems HW - Research Paper Example In this scenario, the basic purpose of a knowledge management system should be the assurance that the approved clients will be able to access information. Moreover, just using a straightforward information management, recovery system and document cataloging is the beginning. Since gathering business knowledge does not only engage software and technology but it also necessitates a powerful document management software and intellectual change of how data and information are produced, managed, dispersed, stored and developed into modernization (infoRouter, 1998), (TechTarget, 1998) and (Bellinger, 2004). This paper discusses some novel aspects of knowledge management (KM) discipline for organizational innovation. In this paper I will analyze some of the prime areas of KM system for our organization. I will discuss some advantages along with significant factors regarding this new technology application at different levels of our corporation. CURRENT PROBLEMS WITH ORGANIZATION With curren t business practice at the corporation we are facing some critical problems regarding corporate operational arrangement. In this scenario the major issue is due to the traditional and inflexible working structure of the business. Seeing that, currently corporation is running its operations using traditional business practices (without knowledge management system) thus, below are some possible issues: (Laudon & Laudon, 1999) and (Turban, Leidner, McLean, & Wetherbe, 2005) Long time required for processing information Difficulties in managing records using paper based approach Difficult to manage business processes A lot of time required to search for the business information Absolutely no or least data sharing More workers required to handle business information Information gathered can include dirty data Business reports are complex and not offering better contribution for the effective decision making about business KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SIGNIFICANCE Knowledge management outlines th e major concerns of organizational efforts, change and ability beside fundamental and irregular environmental changes. Additionally, it represents organizational procedures that look for synergistic grouping of information and data processing capability of information technologies, and the modern and inspired competence of various individuals. Moreover, the knowledge management is related to the practical and thoughtful implementation for the reason that it does not exist in the hypothetical description however in the actual world implementation where the maximum confronts and prospects recline (Global Risk Management Network LLC,, 2011) and (Laudon & Laudon, 1999). IMPORTANCE KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Knowledge management system is an innovative concept that is used to illustrate the creation of knowledge warehouses, knowledge availability and distribution, communication through teamwork, improving the knowledge framework and organizing knowledge as a plus point for an enterprise . Normally, knowledge management system encompasses a variety of applications and techniques those

Monday, October 28, 2019

Coal Is Just Not Black Gold Essay Example for Free

Coal Is Just Not Black Gold Essay Based on the literature and observations, he then proposes few strategic recommendations to improve organisational effectiveness both to Law makers and to company. INTRODUCTION Coal India Limited (CIL) is a Government of India Undertaking, Maharatna (Country’s Jewel) company which employees 400,000 people approximately as of April’12. In ended last financial year, with net annual sales of 15 billion dollars, and a net annual operating profit of 3 billion dollars approximately by producing coal from its 466 Coal mines across India and selling it to Power generation companies. It is the biggest and only listed company in the sector, where private companies are not allowed to compete, Thus accounting to 80% of Annual national production of Coal in India. CIL has five unions, which represent all the employees in the company. Since the company is only major coal producer and acts more like a monopoly in the sector, wages are low compared to Industry average in other countries. Coal India apart from producing coal on its own also gives few coal mines to private third parties for contract. These mines are smaller in size and remote for the company to allocate resources, hence they are contracted. This strategy of contracting coal mines and not having enough regulations around Coal production has led to few private contractors preferring illegal means of employment in these coal mines and not allowing private competitors to compete with Public sector companies COAL IN INDIA Indian Coal Industry currently occupies third position by producing 400 metric tons per year ( mtpy), after US (1100 mtpy and China 2400 mtpy. Within the country Coal mining is nationalized and accounts for 60 per cent of electricity production. Coal being crucial resource for economic growth, it is safeguarded by government by passing many acts, Indian Mines Act of 1952, Mines and Minerals Regulation and Development (MMRD) act are the key legislative act meant for protecting labour working in mining industry and governing mining and exploration in India respectively. After further revision in 1993 and 2002, National Mining Policy was outlined by Government of India whose objectives are mineral development through exploration in both Onshore and Offshore fields. Policy is meant to promote mineral industry standardize training and research, considering future needs of the country with minimal impact of nature and ensure safety and health of all people involved in the industry. These objectives do make a progress in standardizing the rules, however it has to clearly describe how the law handles informal mines and how to deal with illegitimacy under current law. According to a Journalist expert of small mines Chakravorty (2002), Illegal mines in India constitute of 88 per cent of the total reported mines in count, producing approximately 10 per cent of the total value of mineral production of the country. This number has increased in the last decade , where 30 per cent of illegal mining. These mines comprise of poor people toiling for lowest wages and almost negligible security, health and safety conditions. According to MMRD Act, Mines Act and other Environmental Acts, all minerals are broadly classified into â€Å"Major† and â€Å"Minor† and rest the responsibility of mining with the state. MMRD has further classified mines has Class A or Class B determined based on the mechanical equipment used and Labour employment the mine generates. Based on financial investment, Labour work, Depth of deposits and technology deployed, mines are simplified to different Classes and given for contract. Typically Class B mines are given for contract to subsidiaries by CIL , One such example is Eastern Coal Fields, in state of Meghalaya, where even though they mines are Small, they are labour intensive and needs to have high security and health standards. National Institute of Small Mines (NISM) , a governing body has classified mines based on the production amounts. From various acts above, it can be understood that legal definitions hinge on physical dimensions of mine, which is in turn is used to determine the effort and time required to mine. However for a complex economic activity like mining with close social linkages and unique to the nature of the mine, such reductionist approach and simplifying mines obscures the diversity of mining practices across scales. As large formal processes of mineral extraction, processing and use cannot be applied to such small mines they tend to be rejected and Illegitimated. Clearly, existing laws have loopholes which are inadequate in handling perennial Informal and Illegal mining. Also Illegal miners cannot lobby for recognition, since current structure of the sector is monopolistic with over 80% reserves under CIL. This situation has resulted in dire consequences and well-being of Local society around colliery areas and environment. COAL INDIA , A MONOPOLY Coal India Limited (CIL) established in 1970, is responsible for mining the coal, while the ownership of which is vested with the state. Consequently the organization has played a critical role in meeting state’s growth plans. The decision making on mineral resources is influenced by engineers, geologists, bureaucrats and political groups and governance is solely vested with CIL. The Coal Mines Nationalisation Bill, 2000 allows state governments to mine coal only if CIL certifies with no Intention to mine certificate. The Ministry of Coal ( MoC ) has awarded CIL a near monopolistic power, giving rise to tight control on its country’s reserves and lack of transparency in many areas. Because of lack of more advanced technology for procuring coal and other social costs, it is also noted that mining cost of Coal in India is 35% higher than other exporting countries like Indonesia, Australia, because of poor productivity ( 3 tonnes / man shift ) as compared to 12 tonnes / man shift in Australia. As a solution privatising of coal sector is attempted, however it is still in preliminary stage. The challenge to policy makers in this regard is to ensure how to safeguard the wealth from illegal mining and environment within the region, at the same time benefit people in mining areas by making laws that do not outcaste people and their livelihoods as illegitimate also ensure greater transparency and standardization in pricing of coal. In coming years, demand for coal in the country is expected to increase multi fold, according to IEA 2006, Reuters 2007, hence the need for government to restructure the sector is critical to not only to answer many global implications concerning climate changes and Kyoto Protocol and but also streamline the definite increase in informal collieries which will continue to meet the demands of local consumers and ensure they meet minimum security and health standards of living. SOCIAL IMPACT Coal India Limited has destroyed environment in many coal traces with no or little concern for social implications, Inspire of Forest and environment controls. This behaviour can be attributed to sole monopoly power vested with one company on nation’s coal production. There were other instances of violation of human rights noticed while employee people at Coal mines One such example, It was noted that at Janita Hills, Meghalaya , India. 5000 children less than age of 18 was trafficked from Assam, Nepal and Bangladesh and employed by coal mines in Meghalaya which are contracted to private contractors by CIL . Many such instances were noticed not only in eastern part of India , but also across many nations’ coal traces in West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka states. Inspite of the Mines Act , 1952 which doesn’t allow bonded labourers or people below the age of 18 to work. Sometimes even without environment degradations, large mining projects have impacted social lives with serious implications for the livelihoods of local communities around in and around coal traces, where people were forced to leave their traditional occupations for scavenging in left over coal traces, which are not economically viable for contractors. Such instances were noticed in Jharkhand, where government and company officials have neglected social and cultural issues around the mining areas for years impacting the livelihoods of people living in these areas. This has created a need for extreme leftist or Maoist Movements to resist such acts– as observed by Chandra Bhusan, Associate Director of Centre of Science and Environment. According to him Indian Mineralised tracts are mostly in conflict Zones, since Company officials, technical experts and governing bodies never seriously engaged with social issues. Current legal instruments are anti-poor and of colonial vintage and unable to deal with today’s realities. Many Civil Non-Governmental Organisation groups have taken a non-violent approach to use existing judicial mechanisms such as filing Public Interest Litigation(PIL) to bring justice to local communities whose daily lives are impacted. Ex : PIL filed against Eastern Coalfields Limited by Mazdoor Sabha in Country’s Apex court. Although Supreme Court Panel has lashed against CIL, It remained unresponsive SOCIAL LICENSE TO OPERATE Over the past 2 decades many changes were noticed in global mining industry. There is increased and concerted global efforts where nine major global companies supported a global scale project called Mines, Minerals and Sustainable Development (MMSD) Project ,whose direct outcome is to the increasing charges of environmental destruction and irresponsibility on coal mining companies to care socio-cultural changes caused by them in areas of operation are laid out and followed globally. MMSD group of companies agreed that Mining Company in developing countries not only needs Legal license to operate but also Social License to Operate. Under this backdrop At CIL, mining engineers who make all the plans , mining project itself assumes more importance over people living in these mining operations. This view was observed from many bureaucrats in India, CIL uses their rationale that Land Acquisition Act or Coal Bearing Areas Act does not provide assistance for Local people around the impacted areas, thus ignoring local needs and perpetuating illegal mining under its belt. ILLEGAL COAL MINING AND UNSAFE WORKING CONDITIONS In energy-hungry country like India, demand for coal has increased in the last 2 decades, coal production remained fairly stable, causing coal prices to surge in recent years. The lack of reform and rising demand have spawned a seedy underbelly of â€Å"Coal Mafia† and a class of workers that illegally scavenge the mines for coal. The Coal Nationalization act in 1952, revised in 2000 has made it legal for just the centre or state governments to authorize coal mining, i. . , only government owned companies, its subsidiaries and contracted third parties. Apart from illegally mining, scavenging from abandoned mines is another source of obtaining coal. In West Bengal state for instance Raniganj-Jharia region there are many abandoned mines by CIL subsidiaries which have neglected filling up the mines with sand, as per regulation , consequently villagers have ready access to scavenge. It was also observed that open abandoned underground mines release hazardous gases like Carbon Monoxide which are hazardous and can kill people who go to scavenge left over coal. Scavenging can occur in both underground and open cast mines. The later assumes greater significance. In these areas Poor Security of mines storage and transportation was observed where coal is transported with head baskets into awaiting trucks. Coal India also delivers coal to local sale dumps located near the mines and big dumps, pilferage takes place regularly on major highways from long distance. In eastern India, Its not unusual to see women and children work the unsafe mines with the most rudimentary tools. Most are drawn to it in the hopes of earning a better  income. According to World Bank, over 20 million people depend on mineral resource extraction for living. When this number is compared with formal mining industries it is immensely large. PAUPERIZATION IN COAL MINING AREAS IN INDIA In colliery areas where CIL operates, significant amount of social and environmental transformation takes place over a period of time. Within bureaucratic and political circles the notion that Coal as a commodity is being excavated for greater common good by a Central government owned body like Coal India Limited, represents lack of attentions to people’s interests and social impacts of mining coal. Decay of social fabric, erosion of traditional livelihood, rising levels of urbanisation are some of the socio impacts which vary according to physical proximity of the mine to livelihoods. Between 1971 and 2001, people in Ranijang region in west Bengal have slowly moved away from agriculture as an occupation to mining and scavenging , even in non-colliery areas. Women especially from downtrodden caste and below poverty line are most impacted by this migration. In areas of Jharkhand gradual pauperization of people around coal mining areas have taken place in which traditional land and water rights in the region in which they live are lost and few negligible short term benefits of mining are accrued which will is leading to steady extinction of tribal people in remote coal mining areas. In most of the cases, links between the legal and illegal coal mines are more complex than above example. Both the groups either co-exist or coal mining company complains against scavenging to local authorities as law and order problem, however bureaucratic reply is usually pointing the company should take care of its resources. Hence in the existing legal setup both parties formally or informally will try to co-exist peacefully. Similar setup exists between large scale and small scale transportation in centralized control manner controlled by mafia group. Part of the root cause for such inefficient maintenance, transportation and distribution systems lies with CIL and its subsidiaries where they are not standardized and do not consider domestic consumer, In the entire eastern region CIL doesn’t have large depot to cater the needs of domestic consumers. Hence often industry owner applies for a license to grant coal to fire the furnaces or generate power. This permission is difficult to get and consumer need to bribe any intermediate parties from company officials, bureaucrats and politicians leading to significant overhead cost for the company, there by preferring a shorter and simpler coal extracting methods by joining hands with mafia system or illegal mining. STRATEGY MAKING PROCESS FOLLOWED BY GOVERNMENT OF INDIA AND COAL INDIA In the above sections, various issues faced by the community, company and the system at large are explained. To understand the issue in hand better and to analyse the issues lingering the sector better, Government’s and Company’s behaviour with larger society is compared with few Strategy making processes. According to author, current system has a predefined set of objectives and is thriving to achieve that without considering other subjects involved in entire scenario. This behaviour aptly fits into Classical approach highlighted by Grant (2008). The reductionist approach by MMRD and other acts by the Government can be mapped to this approach Government trying to oversimplify the complexities involved in various mines based on certain factors like Size, productivity etc. , such approach leads to formation of clear goals to the Company and doesn’t allow the company to recognize the emergent behaviour of the employees, people livelihoods in affected areas. Below is a modified representation of Grant’s Classical approach of Strategic Human Resource Management. Figure 1 : Common elements in successful Strategies , Adopted from Grant ( 2008: 7) Author notices that because of monopolistic nature of coal mining sector in India and sufficient support from political circles, there isn’t sufficient pressure on the company for Profound understanding of all the groups involved. In Most of the cases, Long term agreed objectives takes more priority over other priorities mentioned like Profound Understanding of all groups involved, Regular Appraisals of employees involved and Environmental awareness. Hence the company will focus on financial targets to achieve more than Social Impact it creates in thousands of people it impacts. Thus it can be stated that Classical approach readily doesn’t fit in or help in solving the issue. Current Intended strategy of Government of India, behind Nationalization of Coal mining in 1952 is to protect the reserves from exploitation by private parties is well understood, however with the changing times , growing demand and involvement of various other socio-political and technological factors, Intended Strategy is not being completely realized. There is a deliberate effort on its part , to ensure current intended strategy works by allowing illegal mining and scavenging by local people in coal mining areas in order to peacefully co-exist and continue to mine in coal traces. However by comparing the number of court petitions filed by local tribes in Jharkhand, WestBengal living nearer to various collieries, comparing the productivity / person and high cost of mining compared to other export countries it can be understood that , slowly they are moving towards an unrealized strategy where focus is only on net volumes realized and not considering environmental impact . EMERGENT STRATEGY OF STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT In practice organization approach can be explained by Emergent Strategy approach as suggested by Mintzberg (1987) are relevant. According to March (1976) and Mintzberg (1987), planned strategies are not always realized; strategies can often emerge and evolve over a period of time. The Strategy should be moulded over action . Similar such fluid approach can be applied, where an additional dimension as mentioned below in Emergent strategy is required to recover from unrealized strategy and to streamline the company’s goals. Privatization of coal mining along with a holistic review of existing mining policies impacting the sector is the emergent strategy to improve the productivity, transparency of coal production and livelihoods of people involved. However its application remains a challenge. Figure 2 : The Emergent Strategy, source from the strategy concept, California Management Review, Mintzberg. H, 1987. Systemic Approach of Strategic Human Resource management On similar lines to Emergent Approach of Strategic Human resource management, Whittington(1993,2001) systemic approach provides more answers to the issue, where Strategy is shaped by the social system the company operates within. This strategy is shaped by cultural and institutional interests of broader society, since organisations and decision makers are embedded in network of social relations, hence adept understanding of the needs of the society at large and acting accordingly should be key . OUTCOMES Profit-Maximising PROCESSES Deliberate Emergent Pluralistic Classical Evolutionary Systemic Processual OUTCOMES Profit-Maximising PROCESSES Deliberate Emergent Pluralistic Classical Evolutionary Systemic Processual Figure: 3Whittington’s (1993) generic perspective on strategy Author believes Emergent and Systemic approach to planning a strategy is apt and required by all parties involved( both policymakers and industrialists ) in order to operate in complex world with various socio-geo political limitations. This it can be concluded that to effectively manage human esources and to improve organisation performance , integration between human resource management and business strategy holds key for its success. (See Holbeche, 1999; Schuler and Jackson, 1999). EMPLOYEE RELATIONS IN COAL INDIA Coal India has both union and non-union based workers. Starting from 2009, it has been recruiting more than 1000 employees every year from premier management and technology schools across India. This is one of managemen t initiatives taken to inject fresh blood and reduce the average age of its labour force. While the decision to recruit young highly talented workforce as change agents is appreciable, 30 to 40 per cent of these employees quit every year for below reasons. 1) Staff felt they were demoralized by senior staff from the beginning. 2) Apart from salary issues, the staffs were under-utilised and faced hostility from seniors. 3) While recruitment, the staff were promised a grade above engineers however not fully implemented even after raising the concern to top management. Hence realized there are limited growth options. Treasurer of Coal Mines Officers Association of India partially accepted the conditions and commented this situation reflects the larger problem of stagnation within the organization It is understood , if the situation continues, the county’s top coal producer is likely to grapple with unprecedented HR crisis across its executive cadre because of limited growth options and 6000 of their employees mostly from executive cadre getting retired every year. Falling on relevant literature , Kochan . T , 2000 has stated that Asian model of employee relations is designed to support an economic strategy that emphasises human resources as a competitive asset- A strategy that requires a highly skilled and committed workforce and a cooperative labour management culture and system. In Coal India, it can be observed that there are required structures in place like Unions for labour management, since the company is too big, management of resources is challenging. Since the company works in a monopolistic structure, there isn’t healthy competition which will push the management to focus on current internal and external problems with more vigilance rather than its current laid back approach and bureaucratic functioning. It can be noted that HR strategies should operate consistently as is a vital part of the overall business plan (Stroh and Caligiuri, 1998). Within the organisation senior management there should regularly conduct analysis regarding the kind of HR competencies needed in the future, and accordingly core HR functions (of procurement, development and compensation) should work together collectively to meet such needs. (see Holbeche, 1999). The 2 core aspects which organization has to focus is Integration of HRM into the business and corporate strategy, and the devolvement of HRM to line managers instead of personnel specialists, thereby ensuring company doesn’t have power blockages and allow it to function smoothly. Brewster and Larsen (1992: 411–12) define integration as ‘the degree to which the HRM issues are considered to formulate long term business strategy’ and devolvement as ‘the degree to which HRM practices involve line managers has responsible rather than personnel specialists’. Similarly (Budhwar and Sparrow 1997; 2002; Hope-Hailey et al. , 1997; Truss et al. , 1997; Sisson and Storey, 2000) also highlighted the concept of devolvement for quicker response in large scale organizations. This process, highlights the need of prioritizing the issues and developing/ training more motivated employees for effective control. Instead of having a narrow hierarchy with in organization, there by leading to stagnation, it can be learnt from this theory that local problems should be resolved by local managers at grassroots level affording more time for senior management. Applying this theory to Coal India Limited, It can be understood that mine managers should be more proactive is liaising with local governments and bureaucracies to form an amicable solution for betterment of society as well as company. Company senior management should work closely and provide required assistance and authority to mine managers to perform their duties. In this context, the Coal India Limited management can learn from other global peers to understand how to deal with employee relations related issues effectively. Below is the summary of one such example stated by an author Young-Kee Kim, in his report on Employee relations. LG group from its inception till 1987 achieved high rates of economic growth with support from Government by suppressing unions, however in the period of 1987-89 it has faced severe hostility and strikes from its workers because of which resulted in 740 million dollars of loss. Post 1990 till 2005, as a result of research and many extensive internal surveys the roup has laid importance to new group level policy that emphasis the promotion of human dignity for employees and the maximisation of customer satisfaction. Voluntary employee participation in workplace organisational improvements has been identified as a critical success factor. Consequently the rapid realisation of co-operative labour relations and enlig htened ER practices has been recognised as tasks of major significance my member firms. * Company has evolved gradually from Passive support of Management perception of union to active partnership with unions.. It gradually made a cautious move from not just maintaining a stable labour relations climate in order to avoid labour disputes, it has invited a voluntary participation of employees and union leaders in management activities. * Unions characteristics of providing weak employee support to being professional in their activities and finally Employee Relations have moved from just dealing with basic issues to providing autonomy and participation of employees From the above example it can be understood that Firstly, without management innovation, co-operative Employee Relations cannot be achieved. For Labour management relations to be a positive sum game, these innovations should enable the company to achieve superior performance and the capacity to provide employees with better rewards. Secondly, much time and effort is required from top management to develop a constructive labour management culture. The Employee relations department cannot achieve the development of co-operative employment relations by itself. The labour management relationship should be viewed as a profit – creating relationship, rather than a cost –creating one. Thirdly, the company should support increased independence and professionalism on the part of the union and provide education for union leaders. A union that lacks professionalism is unable to get a full support of its members and lacks effective management strategies for administering union business because of high turnover of union officials. Fourthly, to be successful all these activities should be conducted consistently and systematically over time. Many companies only seriously consider the labour management relationship when faced by a critical problem. Such focused attention tends to fade when the strike is settled. As explained in the above example, LG group has chosen a different path and spent a year analysing its Employee relations. CONCLUSION IS PRIVATISATION A SOLUTION ? Currently both globally and in India, demand for coal is on the rise, thereby increasing the prices of coal. Due to the volatile times passing through, similar to other commodity sectors like Iron, steel, Coal Mining industry will also undergo divestment and monopoly of Coal India Limited will break. However privatisation is not a panacea for all issues lingering the sector. Time has come for Policy makers, bureaucracy and other parties involved come together to answer few critical questions while restructuring the sector. 1) How to deal with thousands of people making their livelihood from illegal mining of coal ? 2) Will the government able to accept few realities like people living in local region , have rights on mineral resources to strength the lower strata and provide a sense of security to their livelihood ? 3) Can the government, restructure the sector with more robust, full proof, social informed laws protecting and respecting the rights and interests of all involved ? ) With experience from privatising other commodities, after privatising coal mining ,it can be estimated that mushrooming of small coal mining leases can be experienced in an open market scenario. Hence laws and policies safeguarding the interests should be more inclusive than before. Where policies and laws have to deliver sustainable benefits to local and global communities, un like current laws that are focused only on mitigating the negative impacts of mining on the environment and marginalizing small groups over national priorities. Government policies need to take a more holistic approach in understanding about production of â€Å"Illegal mines† as well as marketing and distribution chains through which legally mined coal is illegally distributed. It is vital to integrate local interests in mine management plans to provide access to resources for local people and co-exist peacefully for inclusive growth.. References : Books and Internet Links * Bamber J, Park F, Lee C, Ross P and Broadbent K, 2000, Employment Relations in the ASIA-PACIFIC Changing Approaches, Allen and Unwin, Australia. BeardWell J ;amp; Claydon T, 1994, Human Resouce Management – A Contemporary Approach, Pearson Education Limited, Great Britian. * LG Group ( 1994) LG Labour – Management Relations Long-term Model Report * http://www. thehindubusinessline. com/companies/article2470720. ece * http://economictimes. indiatimes. com/coal-india-ltd/infocompanyhistory/companyid-11822. cms * http://articles. economictimes. indiatim es. com/2011-10-18/news/30295579_1_iits-and-iims-new-recruits-cil * http://www. firstpost. com/business/labour-pangs-for-coal-india-scrip-melts-in-the-heat-67084. tml * http://in. reuters. com/article/2012/10/12/tci-coalindia-idINDEE89B08G20121012 * http://www. dnaindia. com/money/report_coal-india-to-face-india-s-first-class-action-suit-in-15-days_1770358 * http://www. livemint. com/Companies/jEkLsitce5Qt0wx3gyS3sM/Coal-India8217s-UK-shareholder-to-file-petition-in-Indian. html * http://ibnlive. in. com/news/meghalaya-braveheart-fights-against-child-labour-in-coal-mines/266778-3. html * http://www. amusingplanet. com/2011/05/child-labor-in-indian-coal-mines. html * http://www. elshcoalmines. co. uk/forum/read. php? 4,50329,50370#msg-50370 * http://www. mining. com/los-angeles-times-uncovers-child-labour-in-indias-coal-mines/ * http://articles. timesofindia. indiatimes. com/2012-11-14/guwahati/35111450_1_child-labourers-coal-mines-meghalaya-government * http://www. businessinsider. com/photos-indias-illegal-coal-mines-2012-10? op=1 * http://www. thesundayindian. com/en/story/the-unfortunate-social-costs-of-coalgate-and-such-scams/42442/ * http://papers. ssrn. com/sol3/papers. cfm? abstract_id=1716581 *

Saturday, October 26, 2019

T.V Violence Affects Are Kids :: essays research papers

Television is the biggest form of multimedia out there. Its most important role is to report the news and maintain communications between people around the world. Television's most influential, yet most serious aspect is its shows for entertainment. Violent children's shows like Mighty Morphin Power Rangers and adult shows like NYPD Blue and Homicide almost always fail to show the characters resolve their differences in a non-violent manner, instead they show a more entertaining resolution, where the good guy beats the crap out of the bad guy. In one episode of NYPD Blue three people were murdered in the span of an hour. "Contemporary television creates a seemingly insatiable appetite for amusement of all kinds without regard for social or moral benefits" (Foley, 41). Findings over the past twenty years by three Surgeon Generals, the Attorney General's Task Force on Family Violence, the American Medical Association, the National Institute of Mental Health, the American Psychiatric Association, the American Psychological Association, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and other medical authorities indicate that televised violence is harmful to all of us, but particularly to the mental health of children (Foley, 70-71). In 1989 the results of a five-year study by the American Psychological Association indicated that the average child has witnessed 8,000 murders and 100,000 other acts of violence on television by the time he or she has completed sixth grade. In further studies it was determined that by the time that same child graduates from high school he or she will have spent 22,000 hours watching television, twice as many hours as he or she has spent in school (Lamson 124). In a study by the Centers for Disease Control, published by the JAMA (Journal of the American Medical Association), it was shown that homicide rates had doubled between the introduction of television in the 1950's and the end of the study in 1994. In that same study other possible causes for the vast increases in violence were studied, "the 'baby boom' effect, trends in urbanization, economic trends, trends in alcohol abuse, the role of capital punishment, civil unrest, the availability of guns, and exposure to television"(Lamson 32). Each of these purported causes was tested in a variety of ways to see whether it could be eliminated as a credible contributor to doubling the crime rate in the United States, and one by each of them was invalidated, except for television.