Monday, September 30, 2019
Europe there was the Saxons, the Vikings and the franks, these were the three sides of conflict. Europe was filled with violence, illiterate people, superstition and no medical knowledge. They still believed that disease was caused by evil spirits or god(s).. The Islamic empire can reveal a respect for knowledge from all cultures; this made it significant. In their hospitals and pharmacies they would let anyone practice as a doctor. Also they would let anyone be a patient no matter what culture, country or religion. This reveals that the Islamic empire was religiously tolerant.It also is remarkable as the scholars were the first people to build hospitals with different wards for different illnesses. The scholars also collected knowledge from all countries and religions because it didn't what race you are, if you have new knowledge it was valuable. They collected knowledge from India, china, Greece, Italy, all over the empire: in fact it would take someone a whole year to go from one side of the empire to the other. This shows that they were willing to give up at least a year of their time to collect knowledge.Medieval Baghdad should be remembered for the contribution it made to our lives today. The scholars discoveries in medicine are still relevant today as they were the first people to do complicated surgeries. This includes cesareans and eye surgeries. What was remarkable was the fact that they had a 60% success rate on the eye surgeries. Our knowledge of medicinal practices would not be advanced if it were not for them. The scholars gathered information like a new way of writing numbers. This meant that they could write all the numbers from O to infinity with only 10 humbly.The person who did this was called AAA-Swarming. In fact we would not have any computerized technology without the numbers O or 1. This resulted in change as they found a whole new way Of writing numbers which actually made calculations easier. The layout of the city of Baghdad which had double walls and only certain places that you could enter inspired the design of the castles in Europe. Our castle would not the same in any way, shape or form if it were not for the architects designing the city of Baghdad.Also they would not have defended s well if it were not for them either. The reason we do not remember Baghdad for what it used to be is because there is no record of the books they wrote or that they collected the knowledge. Baghdad lost power over its empire as the smaller caliphs decided that they did not want to know more about science, math or astronomy. People called the Mongols destroyed the library which had held all of the books and knowledge that they had spent so long collecting.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
In 1814 Gordon Bryson wrote a poem about the timelessness, and grace of a unnamed women. She walks in Beauty describes the inner and outer beauty of a women. Gordon Bryon was noted as a moral disgrace as he wedded his half sister, and various women (Clugston, 2010). In the lyric poem She walks in Beauty, Byron used metaphors like raven tress, and climes, and starry skies to describe her long jet black hair, and her elegance. A lyric poem is a brief poem that expresses feelings and imagination; its melody and emotion create a dominant, unified impression (Clugston, 2010). In this essay, I will explore how Bryson uses metaphors, and images like light, and darkness to set the tone in She walks in Beauty. In the first stanza in She walks in Beauty, lines one, and two Ã¢â¬Å"She walks in beauty, like the nightÃ¢â¬ does not ends with any puncuation, or pause at the end because it carries over to the next sentence Ã¢â¬Å"Of cloudless climes and starry skiesÃ¢â¬ (Clugston, 2010, 7. 1, para 2). This technique is called enjambment. A enjambment is a continuation of a thought in a line of poetry into a succeeding line, uninterapped by punctuation (Clugston, 2010, 11. , para 2). Bryon expressed how ones beauty can be viewed on a clear night with stars lining the sky. His view of her beauty, and silhouette is cosmic. She walks in Beauty is a lyric poem which express a poets thoughts and imagination, Its melody and emotion created adominant, unified impression (Clugston, 2010). The images being created in the first six lines of She walks in Beauty suggests that a womens physical appearance is classic like a polished baby grand piano dark with shinny white keys Ã¢â¬Å"And all thatÃ¢â¬â¢s best of dark and brightÃ¢â¬ (Clugston, 2010, 11. , para 5). The sixth, and seventh line in the poem emphasizes the similarities between light and dark to describe her elegance. at the end of tthe different forms of symbolism used to describe the first version of Little Red Riding Hood. In the first of She walks in Beauty The content in the original and remakes of this tale is constant in each one. The Little Red Riding Hood that I remembered reading when I was a small child was told as a young woman who was following the orders of her mother to deliver some baked goods to her bedridden grandmother. The role of the wolf is the same as well; he is merely thinking of a cunning way to eat her without being caught in the process. The theme of the original Little Red Riding Hood is a tale of her entering women hood, not her taking cakes to her sick grandmother. The term theme means a representation of the idea behind the story (Clugston, 2010, 7. 1, para 2). When the story was first published in 1697, Europeans easily identified the coalition of the story; translating that act of sex. Ã¢â¬Å"In the French slang, when a girl lost her virginity it was said that elle [a] vu le loupÃ¢â¬âsheÃ¢â¬â¢d seen the wolfÃ¢â¬ (Clugston, 2010, 4. , para 2). In the engraving of the first tale from 1697, it shows Little Red Riding Hood partially dressed lying in the bed beneath a wolf. The tale explains how Little Red Riding Hood stripes out off her clothes at the wolves requested without question (Clugston, 2010, 4. 1, para 2). Ã¢â¬Å"In fact, tales such as Ã¢â¬Å"Red Riding HoodÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Sleeping BeautyÃ¢â¬ were pan-European phenomena, predating even Perrault, with provenances tracing as far back as the Middle Ages and Ancient Greece. Nevertheless, PerraultÃ¢â¬â¢s influence on the transmission of fairy tales to many parts of the Continent was tremendous. Charles PerraultÃ¢â¬â¢s stories were not original creations, but collected oral material edited and fashioned by him into printÃ¢â¬ (Paradiz, 2009, p. 96). The story of Little Red Riding Hood as interpreted by Charles Perrault has Little Red Riding Hood being sent by her mother who loved her dearly to walk to the next village to deliver food to her ill grandmother. On the way to deliver the baked goods, she meets a wolf. A wolf who had not eaten in three days decides not to eat her, as there were woodcutters nearby that would hear the attack. While speaking with the wolf he tricks Little Red Riding Hood into disclosing the location of her grandmotherÃ¢â¬â¢s cottage. As Little Red Riding Hood is a small child, the wolf took advance of her being a naive, and friendly. She disobeyed the cardinal rule that adults constantly reminders their child of: do not stop for, or talk to strangers (the irony of the story is that her mother does not tell her that speaking with strangers is wrong). The term irony is a discrepancy or contradiction that occurs between what is expected to happened and what actually happens in a situation or in an expressed statement (Clugston, 2010, 5. 5, para 3).
Saturday, September 28, 2019
1) Based on the history of the company, why did BP get involved in so much questionable conduct? The reason why BP got involved in so much questionable conducts is because at first they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to spend the money on fixing the stuff. They have been ignoring all these red flags and at the end they ended up spending much money. They could of saved a lot of money if they had fixed the problem before the incident occurred. The reason why they ended having so much trouble is because they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t take care of their stakeholders. Their major concern in those types of business should be the safety of their employees. We all know that those places arenÃ¢â¬â¢t the safest place in the world, which is why BP has to make sure to keep their workers in a safe environment. 2) Analyze BPÃ¢â¬â¢s efforts to improve sustainability. Do you think they are sufficient, or does the company need to do more? At first I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t think that BPÃ¢â¬â¢s has been to sustainable. If you look at their history they have been going up and down pretty quit often which isnÃ¢â¬â¢t a good example of sustainability. If they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have all these problems in the past we could say that they are sustainable but with all the incident that occurred in the past few years it is going to be hard to defend them on that side. Lately they have been investing a lot of their investments green wise in order to improve their image. They have been contributing a lot in the wind farms, the solar system and in the Biofuel. Which is really good for the company, their stakeholders and for the world in general. The more companies start going green wise the less we will destroy our planet. 3) Do you believe the BP code of conduct and ethics initiatives will prevent future misconduct? I think that BPÃ¢â¬â¢s has been trying a lot of things in the past few years to show the good example. Maybe they have done a lot of mistakes in the past, but we canÃ¢â¬â¢t always think negative. They code of conduct could only bring good things within the company. The fact that they make a universal code of conduct through out all their enterprise in the world was a huge step for them. They are trying their best to prove to the world that they arenÃ¢â¬â¢t that bad, and that even oil companies who tempts to destroy our planet with their gasoline can try to save some parts of their mistakes.
Friday, September 27, 2019
Facebook Growth, Challenges and Milestones - Essay Example The Facebook quest to become the leading social interaction website and an essential business and personal networking tool for all who are connected is being hampered by massive challenges such as competition from rival firms, privacy issues, lawsuits as well as need to provide better interaction services while still maintaining its credibility.Ã After a detailed review of the article, the reader generates conclusive decisions that can be adopted by the company. The main purpose of the article is to expose the many challenges faced by Facebook in spite of there success. The author stipulates that, even though Facebook registrations have grown massively, there is no time for celebration due to the challenges faced by the firm and the milestone achievement expected by the executive arm of the corporation. The author illustrates how the recent changes in Facebook home pages have seriously devastated customers especially those who prefer limiting their friends and privacy. By collecting materials and information from the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s executives and the general public as well as reviewing published work concerning the new WebPages, the author seeks to enlighten the general public about the shortfalls of Facebook as well as exposing the management inconsiderate view to customerÃ¢â¬â¢s complaints.
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Evaluating antitrust legislation - Essay Example The origin of Anti Trust Law lies in the reaction to public outcry over the corporate monopolies that dominated US manufacturing and mining. The trusts formed by mergers and mutual understandings used to control prices according to their profit needs. This practice has come to an end by the enacting and executing this act. In the 20th century President Theodore Roosevelt and his successor President William Howard Taft, responded to public criticism over the rapid merger of industries by pursuing more vigorous legal action, and steady prosecution. This brought the downfall of monopoly in the manufacturing resulting in price fall. The Clayton law in 1914 declared price discrimination, tying and exclusive-dealing contracts, corporate mergers and interlocking directorates as illegal but not criminal. The Robinson-Patman Act, passed by US congress in 1936 explicitly forbade forms of price discrimination, in order to protect small producers from extinction due to competition. From 1937 to 1940 Roosevelt's effort to cope with economic decline brought federal antitrust enforcement back. After that Congress added its last piece of important legislation in 1950 with the Celler-Kefauver anti merger act. This made the businesses unable to target the assets of the rivals also in addition to previous forbidding of anti competitive stock purchases. A loop hole was plugged.
The selection process - Essay Example This is the list of requirements an employer should have at least in order to qualify for the job. This is an overview of the abilities and characteristics one must possess to adequately perform the job. Similarly, a job description list is also prepared to explain what the job is all about, including the specific duties and responsibilities for that particular position. In this case, a marketing project manager supervises projects based on quality, time-schedule and budget. Please refer to Appendix A and B for a complete list of job descriptions and specifications. To hire employees, organizations have different methods of recruitment or attracting probable employees. This is time and cost-consuming and should be therefore done efficiently and effectively. Job advertisements must be put somewhere where they are noticed and easily accessed. According to the 2009 Recruitment, retention and turnover survey report in United Kingdom, The top three most used methods of attracting ap plicants are through the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s own corporate website (78%), recruitment agencies (76%) and local newspaper advertisements. However, other means of reaching the target group include specialist journals/trade press, employee referral scheme, links with schools/colleges/universities, search consultant, commercial job boards, physical posters/billboards/vehicle, radio or TV advertisement, and social networking sites (such as Linkedln).  The proposed design of the job advertisement for the position of Marketing Project Manager (Figure 1 and 2) can be placed or uploaded to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s own website via the internet. Since the people of today rely most, if not all of their activities in the internet, it will be best to post it there. Also, if the position is not only open to the natives of the country, citizens of other nations can access it readily since internet caters to everyone else around the globe. Every organization is challenged to keep pace through the f ast changing technology and environment of today. These multifaceted features of the internet should be seen as an opportunity for better communication and utilized for the benefit of the organization. Another applicable way is to publish the job advertisement in local newspapers. It is indeed less costly to buy a newspaper than secure an internet connection most especially if an employee comes from low-income groups. There in the classified ads section of the newspaper list hundreds of job ads open for hiring. ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s a big chance that people scan or read through these pages. After the different recruitment methods are employed, decisions on the selection process is next to be made. When it comes to applicant selection, competency-based interviews are the most common selection method (69%). Ranked second and third are the more traditional methods of interviews Ã¢â¬â following the contents of a CV/application form and structured interviews (panel). Others include tests for specific skills, general ability tests, literacy and/or numeracy tests, telephone interviews, personality/aptitude questionnaires, assessment centres, group exercises (for example role-playing), pre-interview referencing, and online tests selection. Normally, the selection process involves some or all of the above-mentioned activities. For the example given on the Marketing Project Manager position, it is recommended that aspiring employees undergo three stages. First is the filling of the
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Discussion 3 - Assignment Example I think one does not have to be a nutritionist to differentiate between starving and dieting. My uncle and I are very close, more like friends. He has done doctorate in comparative religions. Once, I fell ill. He came to see me. He said, Ã¢â¬Å"I am a doctor, doctors can cure illness in patients, so I can cure your illness.Ã¢â¬ I took it as a joke because it was meant to be one. It was a poor argument as it was not deductively valid. While it was true that he is a doctor, and that doctors can cure illness in patients, the conclusion that he could cure my illness was false as he was a doctor of comparative religions, not a medical doctor. My mother often says that every person has equal mind and intelligence and thus can score the highest in academics, but I find disagree with her saying that different people have different IQ levels. When I say so, she becomes emotional and says, Ã¢â¬Å"None of my children has a lower IQ level than any other. I know my children. They are all very brainy. Period.Ã¢â¬ I find this argument very poor as my brother is very weak in studies whereas my academic performance is much better than his. By saying that all her children are very brainy, my mother tries to make emotional appeal. Once I was on a weight-loss plan. I was following a particular diet pattern, which was based on balanced meals. I was taking both vegetables and meat with certain limits on both. My brother told me to leave consuming meat altogether and instead drink more of fresh juices. I disagreed because fresh juices contain a lot of natural sugars and drinking too much of them is not recommendable in a weight-loss plan, but my brother said, Ã¢â¬Å"Go ask anybody. He would recommend you to drink fresh juices to lose weight.Ã¢â¬ I know there is a lot of misconception about the effects of fresh juice consumption on weight. I find this argument poor as it is an example of ad populum. Drinking a lot of water is recommended
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Topic in Cultural Studies - Assignment Example Greek philosophy had many school of thoughts, which were advanced by philosophers such as Socrates and Plato. Greek philosophy was influenced by old literature and myths (Hanson-Harding, 2000). The roman government was made up of three branches, the senate, the consul, and the assembly. It was characterized by monarchy, democracy and aristocracy. Greece had a parliamentary republic headed by a president and a prime minister. It was dominated by socialists and conservatives. Greece was mountainous and a number of islands. Rome was established on a flat plains made up of fertile soils. On the other hand, Romans were farmers. According to Hanson-Harding (2000), the Greeks were mainly sailors. The Greeks mainly imported goods due to poor soils. They used retail markets to sell their own wares. The Greeks had merchants organized in groups called the guilds. They practiced pottery and metalworking. Romans cultivated grapes and olive trees. Rome was endowed with natural and human resources. They imported grains and exported olive oil and grapes (Thomas,
Monday, September 23, 2019
The Catholic School -Awakening a sense of the sacred in the lives of young people today - Essay Example Thus the spiritual formation must be attributed though continual sustenance of the distinctive characteristics of the catholic school under the Irish education system. Thus, the identity of the next generation of Catholics is under continuous surmise and survey. They may either have a strong sense of their Catholic identity, or will they may grow on to reflect a more generic Christian identity, without the distinctiveness associated with Catholicism. And this is where an appropriate catholic school is of great importance that can awaken in them a pure catholic system of values. A number of social commentators such as Dean R. Hoge and James J. Davidson suggest that the Catholic identity of young Catholics is quite troubled2, since faced by a secular and postmodern culture they are disillusioned by such confusing variety. Hoge3 calls it a Ã¢â¬Å"culture of choiceÃ¢â¬ where religious affiliations or church memberships are strictly voluntary and to be chosen on the basis of personal p reference, people are drifting away from understanding the intrinsic values of spiritual life. Furthermore, many younger Catholics are quite unfamiliar with their religious tradition. And with no idea of their own scriptures, they know little of the history or doctrine of their church, and few would be able to tell the stories of the saints. In his book, Catholicism, Richard McBrien identifies two characteristic foci of the Catholic traditionÃ¢â¬âone philosophical, the other theological.4 Both the pursuit of Catholicism is in reality pluralistic in its approach to truth. Catholic identity traditionally has included for Catholics a sense for the historical uniqueness of their Church; they understand it as a worldwide, visible community, now almost two thousand years old, with roots stretching back to the church of the apostles. Youths of this generation are not given much encouragement to learn
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Globalization and Industrialized Countries Essay As globalization Ã¢â¬Ëcan be seen as being a condition resulting from a long history of international exploration, invasion and colonization, fuelled by economic, military, religious and political interests, and enabled through enormous developments in transport and communications technologiesÃ¢â¬â¢ (Evans 1997:12). The industrialized environment has transformed drastically since the advent of globalization. Industrialized countries have undertaken extreme restructuring by modifying their means of communication and synchronization of work activities. Globalization has made it promise for companies to work on a real-time basis, whereby products and services are conveyed to the right place at the right time. Since then, globalization and information technology has propagated and has undergone significant improvements. Costs have sustained to decline as these new technologies have emerged. A business not supported by a network of computer systems (primary information technology) is more or less destined to fail, since it will be incapable to compete efficiently in todays complex and dynamic environment (Aiki S. 1991). Companies are not the only ones who have gained from advances in modern information technology. Consumers and interest groups have created strategic alliances and now capable to coordinate their activities as well as exchange ideas and thoughts through a number of database and network systems (Collins J. C. , and J. I. Porras. 1991). For instance, owners of personal computers can subscribe to a computer network and without difficulty retrieve information on the products and corporations on line. Such information can also without problems be transmitted to other users. This huge use of technology by both consumers and companies affects, but the way business is run today. These consumer strategic alliances know no geographical limitations; oftentimes, they are global in nature, particularly among the industrialized nations. As companies can get in enormous profits from the better coordination, greater product elasticity, improved quality, leaner production, and more time-based competitiveness that information technology offers, they also facades the threat that can come from these consumers strategic alliances. For instance, corporations can no longer ignore consumer demands for constant product quality, reliability and respect for the environment, or timely delivery of services. As we move toward more and more advanced technologies, the labor force must be retrained. This training must not only expose workers to the technical matters adjoining the new process but also to the new focus of the organization. They have to be made responsive of the importance of advanced technology in improving work methods and in remaining competitive. Employee compulsion to the new process is imperative. Globalization by itself adds little or no value to an organization. There should be organizational as well as employee dedication to exploit the technology to the maximum (Scott, A. 1996). For instance, with ever-increasing use of computer-integrated manufacturing systems, and the stream of technical documentation that accompanies it, employees have to be skilled of recognizing the critical information at the right time. Once that information is recognized and properly interpreted, there must be an organizational dedication to use the information to make better decisions. Without this potential, the organization cannot take advantage from new technologies. Human resourcesÃ¢â¬â¢ management, therefore, will persist to be a critical factor in the survival of any organization (Schlossberg H. 1992). We sum up the influence of globalization on human resources as follows: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Information technology transforms the mode of communication and work processes. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Custom or standardized operations are replaced with skilled and multi-skilled workers. An extremely trained labor force is desired to manage information technology. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Worker motivation and satisfaction might improve since workers are no longer restricted to routine operations, enjoy management powers, and can contribute to developments in their work processes. (Waters, M. 1995) Globalization also has an impact on the organization itself, as follows: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Organizational reformation is required. This reformation makes the organization flat. Decision-making powers are decentralized. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Communications are better and the organization is capable to make timely responses to its environment. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Introduction of new products and services is improved and varieties of products can be efficiently introduced and marketed by the organization. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The organization is competent to improve its efficiency, quality, and competitiveness. (Scott, A. 1997) Todays advanced technology can, conversely, easily become a basic technology. A rapid increase of new technologies also brings rapid obsolescence of earlier technologies. Policies concerning technology must not be static; they must keep evolving. Stalk (1988) points out that competitive advantage is a persistently moving target . . . The best competitors, the most thriving ones, know how to keep moving and always stay on the cutting edge. Competitiveness A company should be able to evaluate potential new technologies quickly. The goal must be to remain competitive, and effective management of technology is a vital step in achieving this. With an increased focus on customer satisfaction, technology is a decisive means for achieving customer satisfaction. Browning (1990) notes that a learning organization uses technology incessantly to refresh its knowledge of its customersÃ¢â¬â¢ wants and to work out new ways of satisfying them. This commitment to be a learning organization needs vast resources, however. For example, Browning also points out that building a learning organization necessitates new skills, clever people and capable machines. Noticeably, technology and human resources should be used together for the organization to stay competitive (Cunningham, S. and Jacka, E. 1996). Barabba and Zaltman (1991) note that hearing the accent of the market and making constructive use of it with respect to the voice of the firm is a learning progression. Essentially, the voice of the market has to be interpreted into facts and tasks that will lead to suitable products or services to satisfy customer needs. This is related to the application of quality function deployment, whereby the organization expands its strategic plans to assure customer needs. Thus, a learning organization should also be a caring organization. As a caring organization, its major objective is to please its stock or stakeholders, its customers, and employees, and also to be collectively responsible. The traditional organization, with the focus on satisfying stockholders alone, is varying to this new form, with a sophisticated stakeholder group (Petrella, R. 1999). Thus, globalization and human resourcesÃ¢â¬â¢ management are recognized as key variables that facilitate an organization to improve its productivity, quality, and competitiveness. A critical constituent is the information technology, which offers both opportunities and challenges. The organization should show understanding to its environment via its policies, and be learning and caring organization, as time and reliability influence competitiveness. Finally, organizations should innovate and constantly move to achieve new targets, particularly in view of todays rapidly developing new technologies (Shields, R. 1997).
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Theories of Temperament: An Overview The literal meaning of personality springs from the Latin word Ã¢â¬ËpersonaÃ¢â¬â¢, the mask employed by roman theatre actors. personality refers to our characteristics ways in which of responding to people and things. Personality is characterised by the subsequent features:- it has both physical and psychological parts. Its expression in terms of behavior is fairly distinctive in an exceedingly given individual. Its main options dont simply modification with time. its dynamic within the sense that a number of its options could change thanks to internal or external situational demands. Definitions of personality While there are many alternative theories of personality, the primary step is to know specifically whats meant by the term personality. The word personality itself stems from the Latin word persona, that referred to a theatrical mask work by performers so as to either project totally different roles or disguise their identities. A brief definition would be that personality is created from the characteristic patterns of thoughts, feelings and behaviours that create someone unique. additionally personality, personality arises from inside the individual and remains fairly consistent throughout life. Some other definitions of temperament as given by some psychologists are: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Personality refers to individuals characteristic patterns of thought, emotion, and behavior, along side the psychological mechanisms hidden or not behind those patterns. This definition means among their colleagues in different subfields of science, those psychologists United Nations agency study temperament have a novel mandate: to clarify whole persons. (Funder, D. C., 1997) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Although no single definition is suitable to all or any personality theorists, we will say that temperament could be a pattern of comparatively permanent traits and distinctive characteristics that offer each consistency and individuality to an individuals behavior. (Feist and cur, 2009) Components of temperament So what specifically makes up a personality? As described within the definitions higher than, one would expect that traits and patterns of thought and feeling frame a crucial half. a number of the other basic characteristics of temperament include: Consistency theres typically a recognizable order and regularity to behaviors. basically, individuals act within the same ways in which or similar ways in which in an exceedingly style of things. Psychological and physiological temperament could be a psychological construct, however analysis suggests that its conjointly influenced by biological processes and wishes. It impacts behaviors and actions temperament doesnt simply influence however we tend to move and respond in our environment; it conjointly causes North American country to act in bound ways in which. Multiple expressions temperament is displayed in additional than simply behavior. It may be seen in our thoughts, feelings, shut relationships and different social interactions. THEORIES OF temperament Personality contains a long history ranging from mathematician, Plato, Aristotle, solon and varied different philosophers and writers. Plato Plato (427Ã¢â¬â347 BCE) outlined the human soul because the seat of temperament. in keeping with philosopher the soul consists of 3 basic forces guiding human behavior: reason, emotion, and appetence. Reason is given the very best price because it keeps the additional primitive forces of appetence and feeling treed whereas feeling and particularly appetence area unit considered the Ã¢â¬Å"lower passions.Ã¢â¬ Aristotle Aristotle (384Ã¢â¬â322 BCE), one in every of PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s students and also the teacher of Alexander the good, noted human soul because the psyche. Aristotle projected that the psyche is that the product of biological processes. He additionally saw the psyche as as well as a collection of faculties that he placed during a hierarchy of importance. the primary school that Aristotle distinguished is that the nutritiveÃ¢â¬âthe human organismÃ¢â¬â¢s basic drives to fulfill its bodily desires. This school is found in plants further as in animals and other people. successive and better school is that the sensory activity, that philosopher outlined because the facet of mind that interprets sensory information. Animals further as folks have a sensory activity school. The last and highest school is that the intellectual, that philosopher saw as distinctive to kith and kin. Descartes According to RenÃ © mathematician (1596Ã¢â¬â1650), a French thinker, human temperament is that the product of the interaction of divine and primal forces. He saw the essential force behind human temperament because the immortal soulÃ¢â¬âpure, perfect, and intangible. mathematician started to clarify however this religious entity interacted with the material body. His observation of associate anatomical dissection semiconductor diode him to suppose he had resolved this mind-body downside. He detected atiny low body within the apparent center of the brain referred to as the epiphysis cerebri or epiphysis cerebri, therefore named by the Greco-Roman MD Claudius I Galen (c. 130Ã¢â¬âc. two hundred CE) as a result of its form reminded him of a pine cone. Descartes(1649) came to the conclusion that that this conical endocrine gland should be the purpose of contact between the soul and also the body. philosopher philosophical system, that is that the philosophical position that 2 su bstancesÃ¢â¬âmatter and spirit, or brain associated mindÃ¢â¬âexist severally of every different though they interactÃ¢â¬âbecame the foremost common read within the Christian West when the seventeenth century as a result of it Ã¢â¬Å"explainedÃ¢â¬ the existence of human discretion and consciousness in an otherwise mechanistic universe. Indeed, before the appearance of the pc, it appeared not possible to permit for consciousness while not appealing to nonmaterial ideas. Machiavelli NiccolÃ ² Machiavelli (1469Ã¢â¬â1527), a Florentine diplomat and political thinker, believed that temperament is best understood in an exceedingly social context. in keeping with Machiavelli, folks area unit basically egotistic, greedy, ungrateful, and unforgiving. moreover, he saw 2 primary forces as process human character. the primary one is associate Italian termÃ¢â¬âvirtÃ ¹Ã¢â¬âwhich is best described as a mix of positiveness, fearlessness, and assurance. Machiavelli referred to as the second force Fortuna, that is that the Latin word for luck. someone might become a robust leader with the assistance of an honest dose of virtÃ ¹ and Fortuna. in keeping with him leaders United Nations agency act out of kindness and a believe the essential goodness of humanity can continuously fail. This belief is usually expressed by modern folks as Ã¢â¬Å"nice guys end last.Ã¢â¬ There are variety of different theories regarding however temperament develops. totally different schools of thought in science influence several of those theories. Type theory of temperament Perhaps the earliest acknowledged theory of temperament is that of the Greek MD Hippocrates (c. 400 B.C.), United Nations agency characterised human behaviour in terms of 4 temperaments, every related to a unique humour, or humour. The sanguine, or optimistic, kind was related to blood; the unemotional kind (slow and lethargic) with phlegm; the melancholic kind (sad, depressed) with black bile; and also the choleric (angry) kind with bodily fluid. Individual temperament made up our minds by the number of every of the four humours. Hippocrates system remained authoritative in Western Europe throughout the medieval and Renaissance periods. abounding references to the four humours is found within the plays of playwright, and also the terms with that Hippocrates tagged the four temperament sorts area unit still in common use nowadays. the idea of temperaments is among a spread of systems that influence human temperament by dividing it into sorts. A wide popularized (but scientifically du bious) trendy assortment of temperament was developed within the Nineteen Forties by William Sheldon, associate yank man of science. Sheldon classified temperament into 3 classes supported body types: the someone (heavy and easy-going), person (muscular and aggressive), and individual (thin and intellectual or artistic). Trait theory of temperament A major weakness of Sheldons morphological arrangement and different kind theories generally is that the component of oversimplification inherent in inserting people into one class, that ignores the actual fact that each temperament represents a novel combination of qualities. Systems that address temperament as a mix of qualities or dimensions area unit referred to as attribute theories. Well-known attribute intellectual Gordon Allport (1897-1967) extensively investigated the ways in which during which traits mix to create traditional personalities, cataloguing over 18,000 separate traits over a period of thirty years. He projected that every person has about seven central traits that dominate his or her behavior. Allports commitment to building attribute analysis additional manageable and helpful by simplifying it had been expanded by future researchers, United Nations agency found ways in which to cluster traits into clusters through a method referred to as correlational analysis. Raymond B. Cattell reduced Allports in depth list to sixteen basic teams of inter-related characteristics, and Eysenck claimed that temperament can be delineate supported 3 basic factors: psychoticism (such delinquent traits as cruelty and rejection of social customs), introversion-extroversion, and emotionality-stability (also referred to as neuroticism). Hans Jurgen Eysenck conjointly developed a quadrant supported across emotional-stable and introverted-extroverted axes.
Friday, September 20, 2019
It had been an unbelievable season so far, we were going into the championship game of junior league with only two losses. Of course, the only other team with a better record than us was the black team. We gave them their only loss on the second game of the regular season. Now, after defeating the better of the Mosinee teams in the semi finals, my dad, who was also the coach of our blue team, had stopped to watch the rest of the game between black and red. As we pulled into the parking lot, Andy Dunst ran up to our truck and said, Ã¢â¬Å"Black is losing in the sixth!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Really?Ã¢â¬ I asked. Ã¢â¬Å"Yah, theyÃ¢â¬â¢re down 9-6.Ã¢â¬ As we watched the rest of the game, black just couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t seem to get anything going, and the players on our team that were there watching were getting more and more excited. Finally, that last out was made, and we felt that the championship was a lock with our best pitcher going for the championship. All week, I was excited for the game, and finally it was the big day. As we were going through our warm-up routine, everybody was loose and confident. We were fooling around just like it was another game. Players were making jokes, throws were all over the place like always and it seemed like we had been there a thousand timesÃ¢â¬ ¦ until the game started. Josh Heinrick was on the mound in the first inning, and red was able to string a couple of hits together and score a couple of runs. Ã¢â¬Å"Lets go guys, itÃ¢â¬â¢s still early and we can make up those runs,Ã¢â¬ encouraged my dad. So, we went up to the plate, I was batting sixth, and went down in order. The team morale had gone from high and confident to rather low and worried. The game dragged on into the fifth inning and we were still behind by three. Now it was time to bear d... ...ssed it! Our team was going crazy. The outfielder was able to throw out the runner going to second and end the inning, but we had the lead going into the top of the final inning. All right, guys, letÃ¢â¬â¢s hold them, and we have this one. We control the game now, and itÃ¢â¬â¢s ours to lose,Ã¢â¬ encouraged my dad. Red was down, and they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have anything in the seventh. They went down one, two, three. Our team all ran to the pitcherÃ¢â¬â¢s mound and celebrated. It was the best feeling I had ever experienced from baseball. The energy was awesome after the comeback win, and you could tell that red didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know what happened. They had us down and out in the second to last inning, but they couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t hold on. As they announced our names to get the trophies, we could hardly stand still. As I waited, I was thinking, I will never forget how it felt to win my first championship.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
The Elections of 1948 and 2004 The elections of 1948, and 2004 had many similarities. In both elections we had the two major political parties, plus a third independent party. We had a war going on, polls trying to predict the election, and two main candidates working on getting elected. The elections did have some differences though. Money spent, mediums campaigned through, and the number of votes for the third party. Despite the differences, there was one main similarity that stood out between the two elections, the type of rhetoric used to sway votes from both sides. In the election of 1948 Thomas Dewey rarely gave any plans, and even more rarely would he ever try to tell us why he would make a better president than incumbent Harry Truman. Instead he would complain about the new deal plans, and let his looks try and get him elected. Harry Truman was on the attack. The polls showed him far behind, so he figured he had ground to cover. He was quoted by the AP in the New York Times as saying Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦if my opponent had the courage to discuss the issues.Ã¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"PresidentÃ¢â¬â¢s Speech in PittsburgÃ¢â¬ ). This recent election went similar. Although we did not have one candidate kick back and let his looks drive his campaign, we did have a candidate try and rely on his image to get him elected. It was viciously attacked, as well as defended. In the end, this did not seem enough to win, yet again. To get a better understanding of the outcome of this election, you must dig deeper, and examine each candidate one by one. Look at what the various candidates did to swing the vote one way or the other. Only after analyzing each candidateÃ¢â¬â¢s campaign can you see that the presidential election relies heavily on image, with logical reason... ...y, this does not say much for our country, and the direction we are headed in. Works Cited Ã¢â¬Å"The Election of 1948: Dewey defeats Truman?Ã¢â¬ C-SPAN. 17 November 2004 http://www.c-span.org/classroom/govt/1948.asp Ã¢â¬Å"1948: The Great Truman SurpriseÃ¢â¬ Kennesaw State University Department of Political Science & International Affairs. 17 November 2004 http://www.kennesaw.edu/pols/3380/pres/1948.html Ã¢â¬Å"Thomas E. DeweyÃ¢â¬ Shiawassee County Michigan History. 17 November 2004. http://www.shiawasseehistory.com/tomdewey.html Ã¢â¬Å"Collecting Thomas E. DeweyÃ¢â¬ Shiawassee County Michigan History. 17 November 2004.http://www.shiawasseehistory.com/collect.html Ã¢â¬Å"Dewey CampaignÃ¢â¬ Shiawassee County Michigan History. 17 November 2004. http://www.shiawasseehistory.com/dewey.html Ã¢â¬Å"The Kerry-Edwards Economic PlanÃ¢â¬ 22 November 2004.http://www.johnkerry.com/pdf/economic_plan.pdf>
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
This essay will discuss the life and works of Ayn Rand. The woman who would become Ayn Rand was born Alice Rosenbaum on February 2, 1905. (Branden, Barbara pg.3 1986). She was born during the eleventh year of Nicholas II's reign in Russia.(Baker pg.1 1987). Rand's birth was just before a revolution in Russia, however this revolution was put down by her first year.(Branden, Barbara pg.3 1986). The Rosenbaum's lived quite comfortably under the czar.(Baker pg.1 1987). Beneath their large apartment was Fronz Rosenbaum's chemist shop.(Branden, Barbara pg. 4 1986). Rand's father was a serious man whom she never knew very well.(Branden, Barbara pg.4 1986). Ayn's mother, Anna Rosenbaum, was the opposite of her father and was very sociable. (Branden, Barbara pg. 4-5 1986). As a child, Rand did not have a true sense of affection with her father. (Branden, Barbara pg.5 1986). However, she did develop a strong bond of love with him as she grew older. (Branden, Barbara pg. 4 1986). Ayn did not get along well with her mother. (Branden, Barbara pg.5 1986). Although the Rosenbaum family was traditionally Jewish, it is said that Rand really did not have a religious upbringing. (Baker pg.2 1987). As a result, she became atheist as a child after coming to the conclusion that believing in God is degrading to humans in the sense that man should live for no one else but himself. (Baker pg.3 1987). Rand discovered a passion for upbeat, lively music which she began collecting on records. (Branden, Barbara pg.8 1986). By the time she was five years of age, she had two little sisters, Natasha and Elena. (Branden, Barbara pg.7 1986). As a whole, Ayn's childhood was not a pleasant experience for her; in later years it proved to be an unhappy memory as well. (Branden, Barbara pg.34 1986). Ayn Rand received a good education and learned to read and write at age six. (Baker pg.2 1987). She found her classes boring and too easy. (Baker pg.2 1987). This led her to begin writing simple short stories and novels. (Baker pg.2 1987). Rand's inability to fit in socially at school and her boredom with the education she was receiving led her to become somewhat of a recluse with one exception: her passion for literature. (Branden, Barbara pg.11 1986). Literature seemed to absorb Ayn more than any other thing; it intrigued her and gave her much pleasure to read and soon, to write. (Branden, Barbara p... ...ssionate goal--to create her ideal world and her ideal man. And at the end of her life--despite the odds against her, despite the pain and the losses, despite the illness and anguish and death--it was done." (Branden, Barbara pg.404 1986). "It's a benevolent universe, and I love it, and any struggle was worth it. Struggle or unhappiness are so enormously unimportant. I don't regret a minute of my life." (Branden, Barbara pg.404 1986 [said by Ayn Rand]). Rand led an eventful and memorable life. She inspired many with her novels and her philosophy. The world has gained tremendous insights and knowledge from the philosophy and intriguing novels of Ayn Rand. Bibliography: Branden, Barbara The Passion of Ayn Rand 1986 Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group Inc. New York, N.Y. Nathaniel, Branden Judgement Day: My Years with Ayn Rand 1989 Houghton Mifflin Company Boston, Massachusetts James T. Baker Ayn Rand 1987 G.K. Hall and Co. Boston, Massachusetts The Ayn Rand Column: A Collection of her Weekly Newspaper Articles Written for the Los Angeles Times. With additional, little-known essays by Ayn Rand 1971, 1976, 1977, 1978, 1979, 1991 Second Renaissance Books Oceanside, CA
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Shark Tank is an American reality show produced by Mark Burnett. The show is about aspiring entrepreneurs bringing their business plan up in front of a panel of potential investors to see if they can sell their product to them and get the total investment amount needed. Today the first entrepreneur was Sarah Schulz the founder of Schulzies bread pudding. She was seeking an investment of $160,000 for a twenty percent equity stake in Shulzies. All the investors were able to try a variety of bread pudding which turned out to be a delicious surprise.The only thing lacking in Sarah's business was a stable yet sturdy business plan. The investors definitely wanted to help her, but the risk was far too high. As we all know, to have a successful business you have to have a successful business plan or you will crumble. The second entrepreneur was James Ambler who is the owner of Paparazzi Proposals. They go around capturing the perfect moment of a marriage proposal. He was seeking a $250,000 i nvestment for twenty percent equity in his company. He explained to the panel that he wants to expand his business to cities other than Just New York.The investors gave him helpful advice on how to go about the expansion nd all recommended to first saturate his current market, New York City, and then go on to other destinations. Three of the Ã¢â¬Å"sharksÃ¢â¬ simply told him they dont see the need for that amount of money because the company isn't worth that much. Laurie was very interested but was wanting a bigger piece of the pie, because she felt like she could show him how to move the business into extreme success. Out of the last three investors, they all decided to give him a portion of what he was asking with thirty three percent of the business.Lori and Kevin decided to partner giving him 50,000 for thirty three percent and loaning the rest when he needed it. Robert started off on the fence and gave him the offer of $100,000 with thirty three percent and also loaning the rest when he needed it. He made an offer asking Robert to let Lori partner and Robert immediately was out. So he was left with the only offer standing and that was with Kevin and Lori. He told them if they would go down to thirty percent they would have a deal. The partners agreed and James left the room with investors for his company.The next entrepreneurs who entered in front of the panel had a new way to communicate with a child before it is even born. Curtis and Matt are the founders of Belly Buds who are seeking an investment of $500,000 in exchange for twelve and a half percent of their company. Basically their product makes playing music to the baby much easier by using a baby bump sound system that adheres to the woman's stomach. This allows her to play music and/or voices through her stomach to the baby in the womb anytime, anywhere. The investors first wanted to know if the product was patented.The partners said they have had a patent pending for three years, and Lori went on to say that they were probably not going to get it then. Mark aid that he had a similar product when his children were in the womb it Just didn't adhere to the stomach, which is probably why the patent is pending. Most of the investors described how the price they are asking, based on their sales, was Just too high of an amount for them to risk investing. The other two said that the product Just wasnt unique enough an they didn't see the potential to make money.The final entrepreneur that entered was a man from California with an innovative new cosmetic line. Abe Geary the founder of Pet Paint, colored hairspray for your dog, was seeking a $200,000 investment for twenty percent of his company. The product is veterinary tested, easy to use, easy to wash off, and will make your dog one ofa kind. One investor commented that the product doesn't have a good price, ten dollars a can isn't something most households are willing to spend to spray paint their dog.Kevin said that if he was able to make a paint that no one else could make he would consider the offer but this product is one that anyone can come up with and distribute, so he was out. Lori was concerned with the amount of inventory and also said she was out. Mark was more concerned with the fact that Abe didn't ecognize the opportunity that online sales could bring him, so because of his lack of seeing potential ways to increase his business Mark also didn't invest.With four sharks now out, Robert was Abe's last chance to cut a deal and luckily he was on the fence. While trying to decide Barb comes swooping in offering him $200,000 for sixty percent of his business. His response shocked many when he said that he didn't want to work with someone who was Just interested in equity and declined the offer. It closed with Abe stating that he will be taking the advice of the sharks and Pet Paint will soon be online.
Monday, September 16, 2019
CONSUMER LOANS VS COMMERCIAL LOANS Prepared By:| Ã | | Ã | Rohit Iyer| 11FN-082| Sahil Gupta| 11IB-069| Consumer Loans * Consumer loans are those loans which are required by a person for their personal needs. * If a car loan(finance or lease) is obtained by a company/individual for commercial purposes it is a commercial finance where as if the same kind of car loan is availed by a an individual who would use that car for his personal needs and would not gonna earn rent from that car that is considered a consumer loan.Hence, we can say that consumer loans would not become a source of earning for the borrower, * Examples:- Credit Cards, Personal Finance, Car Finance, Mortgage Finance Features of a personal loan * Variable interest rate: Ã¢â¬â A Variable Interest Rate Personal Loan has an interest rate that may change during the loan term. Accordingly your personal loan repayment may change throughout the life of the loan. With Variable Interest Rate Personal Loans you can make e arly or additional repayments without incurring any penalties. Fixed interest rate: Ã¢â¬â A Fixed Interest Rate Personal Loan has an interest rate that stays the same for the full loan term. The loan repayment should not change due to interest rate changes throughout the full term of the loan. With a Fixed Interest Rate Personal Loan you cannot pay extra to get ahead in your repayments. The repayment amount specified in your loan contract needs to be paid each week, fortnight or month as per the arrangement until the loan is paid in full. If additional payments are made, charges may be incurred. Secured: Ã¢â¬â A secured personal loan is a loan in which the borrower pledges an asset eg a car or property as collateral for the loan. The debt is then secured against the collateral so in the event that the borrower defaults the lender can take possession of the asset used as collateral and may sell it to satisfy the debt by regaining the amount originally lent to the borrower. * Un secured: Ã¢â¬â An unsecured personal loan requires no collateral or security. This type of loan is supported only by the borrowerÃ¢â¬â¢s creditworthiness, rather than an item of collateral. Advantages: Personal loans do not require you to produce any collateral or security, like other loans. * There is no agent or middleman while obtaining this loan. * Banks are always ready to offer personal loans. * All that is required is that you need to satisfy the eligibility criteria. * You may use the loan for educational or even holiday purposes. * You can avail a personal loan during times of emergency when you are short of cash, since you need not answer too many questions to the bank. * You may avail personal loans according to your eligibility ranging anywhere from Rs. 5,000 to Rs. 10,00,000. * It is better to avail a personal loan than to borrow cash on your credit card comparing the interest rate on both. Disadvantages: * The eligibility criteria are stricter in case of personal loans, since there is no security required and the paper work is minimum. * The bank checks on you capability to repay more than any other loan due to the same reason. * Since the bank has a higher risk while providing personal loans, they follow a list of approved categories of borrowers. Interest rates for personal loans could range from 12 % to 30 %, while the service charges and prepayment penalty are also very high. Commercial Loans * Commercial Loans are for business purposes. Usually given toÃ companiesÃ to meet their various business needs. * This category of loan is introduced with the aim to help establishments sustain and grow. * Examples:- Running Finance, Cash Finance, Term Finance, Export Finance, FATR, FAPC II etc Some of its salient features can be described as below: Unrestricted funds: Money extendable under the commercial loans program has no restrictions. A business organization that is eligible for extended line of credit can inevitably find large amount tra nsferred to its bank account. The money can range from small dollar amounts to large sums. * Online Application: Filing of online application for grants is possible. Business owners just need to fill in an online form and submit the same with required documents. * Repayment Assurance: An enterprise owner has to provide assurance of repayment to the lender.This can be done by offering collateral support, credit card, property documents or any other valuables that provide enough assurance. Funds drawn against repayment assurances are kept extended. * Not Restrictive to Business Types: Commercial loans are available to all categories of entrepreneurs without restriction. It means that anyone from any industry can apply for finances. It is unimaginative how this loan support works for all. Just anyone can qualify irrespective of the industry type, small business or large organization. * 24 x7 hr Approval: Business Loan approval is kept open for 24 hours.So, any entrepreneur in an immedi ate need can apply for the grant. Banks are not imaginative and so deploy their work force on a 24Ãâ"7 hr basis to get an organization funded. It is also true that the support staff does all the nitty-gritty, goes through the details, conducts enquiries, and then forwards the application to make grants available. * Good Credit Scores Required: Financers look for good credit scores before granting loan to an organization. So, an enterprise should work hard to build up its credit scores. Statistical Data:
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Community Service Argument Green Bay High Schools are being faced with a very controversial issue, which revolves around whether or not community service hours are needed to graduate. High schools are arguing that 24 hours of community service are needed to graduate from their facility of learning, but many frustrated students are voicing protests to this demand. This situation has caused much controversy among the school system and many arguments have risen in support and against this community service issue. Supporters of the community service project argue that if students fulfill their 24 hours of community service in high school they will develop into upstanding pillars of the community. They believe that students will become better aware of what the real world is like by doing community service and giving back to their community. Students will learn valuable life lessons by participating in community service and will feel good about themselves for helping others in need. Protestors have struck back with a very solid argument. They feel that if high school students are forced to do community service they will begin to see it as a punishment and as something that they have to do because it is required instead of something that they want to do because it is the right thing to do. Students will in the future look back at the community service projects that they were forced to do throughout high school and will continue to carry a negative outlook on community service for the entirety of their lifetime. Another idea that the protestors give about this community service issue is time constraints will make it close to impossible for high school students to fill the necessary 24 hours needed to graduate. High school students have an enormous amount of things going on in their lives. They attend school daily for 7 hours, participate in extra-curricular activities, and have part-time jobs. High school students have such a limited amount of time for themselves, as it is that by tacking on another time-consuming project like community service is ridiculous. Supporters argue back that high school students only need to fulfill 24 hours of community service throughout 4 years, that really isnÃ¢â¬â¢t asking a whole lot of time commitment. If students budget their time and start the community service when they are a freshman all they need to do is an hour every other week and they will still be doneÃ with a year or so to spare. A final controversial issue that pops up is transportation. The protestors argue that freshman and sophomores in high school do not have their driverÃ¢â¬â¢s license, so how are they expected to get to their community service site when their parents or friends are at work or just to busy to give them a ride. Unless the school offers a means of transportation for the students there really is no solution to this problem. The supporters argue that students can find community service projects close to home or if they live in the country find another student to car pool with. Forcing students to complete 24 hours of community service in high school in order to graduate is a very controversial issue. Both sides have solid arguments about why community service should or should not be forced upon students. Community service is a wonderful thing that everyone should be required to do at some point in their life, but are high school students mature and responsible enough to take on community service projects at this stage in their life?
Saturday, September 14, 2019
1. 1. Describe the financial situation of the United States in 1791. Ã¢â¬ ¢The revenue had declined and the public debt was huge. Ã¢â¬ ¢The American people were brashly (*hastily, rash) at temping to erect a republic on an immense scale. 2. 2. Characterize the American population at the time of the ratification of the Constitution. Ã¢â¬ ¢The American population was doubling about every twenty-five years and the first census in 1790 recorded about 4 million people. Ã¢â¬ ¢The population was still 90 percent rural though even though the cities were doing very well and growing.About five percent of the population lived east of the Appalachian Mountains 3. 3. When was Vermont admitted to the Union? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Vermont become the 14th state in 1791. 4. 4. Who did the Electoral College elect first president of the United States in 1789? Ã¢â¬ ¢George Washington was unanimously drafted the first president by the Electoral College in 1789. 5. 5. Philadelphia was the first capital of the new n ation. What was the second? Ã¢â¬ ¢New York was the temporary capital. 6. 6. Name the members of WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s cabinet and the positions they held. Ã¢â¬ ¢The secretary of state was Thomas Jefferson. Secretary of the Treasury was Alexander Hamilton. Ã¢â¬ ¢The Secretary of War was Henry Knox. Attorney General Edmund Randolf 7. 7. Who wrote the bill of Rights? When were they adopted by the states? Ã¢â¬ ¢The Bill of rights was adopted in 1791 and was drafted by James Madison. 8. 8. Read the Bill of Rights. 9. 9. How was the judicial branch organized under the Judiciary Act of 1789? Ã¢â¬ ¢The branch had a chief justice and five associates. It also had federal district and circuit courts and established the office of attorney general. 10. 10 Who was the first Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court? John Jay was the first supreme court Justice. 11. 11. Explain HamiltonÃ¢â¬â¢s financial plan Ã¢â¬ ¢His plan was to shape the fiscal policies of the administration in a wa y to favor the wealthier groups. Ã¢â¬ ¢By doing the above, the wealthy would lend the government monetary and political support. Ã¢â¬ ¢Hamilton also planned to pay back the nations debt at face value, meaning everything they owed plus accumulated interest (a total of more than 54 million dollars) 12. 12. How did Hamilton get his way in Congress? Ã¢â¬ ¢Hamilton persuaded Jefferson to line up enough votes in Congress for assumption.In return Virginia would have the federal district on the Potomac. 13. 13. Why did Hamilton see the national debt as a Ã¢â¬Å"national blessing? Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¢He believed it to be a national blessing because it was a kind of union adhesive. The more people the government owed money to, the more people there would be with a personal state in the success of HamiltonÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas. Ã¢â¬ ¢He made a debt an asset for vitalizing the financial system as well as the government itself. 14. 14. How did Hamilton plan to raise the money to pay off the national de bt? Ã¢â¬ ¢HamiltonÃ¢â¬â¢s first plan was custom duties (imposing taxes on imports) which ould be derived from a tariff. Ã¢â¬ ¢Revenues from tariffÃ¢â¬â¢s required a heavy foreign trade which was another major part of HamiltonÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy. 15. 15. What was HamiltonÃ¢â¬â¢s vision for a national bank? Ã¢â¬ ¢Hamilton wanted a national bank that was a powerful institution and would hold the federal treasuries money. Ã¢â¬ ¢By having a national bank, federal funds would stimulate business by remaining in circulation Ã¢â¬ ¢The bank would also print paper money and provide a sound and stable national currency. 16. 16. Why did Jefferson argue against the national bank? Jefferson argued that such financial power should be left to the states. He argued that the states, not Congress, had the power to charter banks. Ã¢â¬Å"Whatever the constitution does not permit, it forbidsÃ¢â¬ 17. 17. How did Hamilton answer JeffersonÃ¢â¬â¢s recommendations to Washington? Ã¢â¬ ¢Hamilton used the example in the constitution which gave congress the power to pass any laws which seemed proper or necessary. He argued since the government was empowered to collect taxes and regulate trade, a national bank would be both proper and necessary to help perform these basically functions. HAMILTONS PLAN Pay off states debt Ã¢â¬â Tariffs Ã¢â¬â Exsize tax Ã¢â¬â Sell bonds Ã¢â¬â Create a national bank 18. The Whiskey Rebellion in Pennsylvania in 1794 was lead by distillers who strongly opposed the 1791 excise tax on whiskey. 19. The rebellion was ended when President Washington sent in federal troops. Although the troops faced no opposition, a strong message was sent by the government stating that it would enforce the law. 20. N/A 21. Jeffersonian Democratic-Republicans wanted to get into the French and British War to fight for France. 22. Washington did not want to enter the French and British War 23.Washington issued the Neutrality Proclamation of 1793 stating the cou ntry's neutrality from the Britain-France war. He was backed by Hamilton 24. 25. For years, the British had retained the frontier posts on U. S. soil, all in defiance of the peace treaty of 1783. 26. 27. The London government did not want to abandon the valuable fur trade in the Great Lakes region, and British agents openly sold firearms to the Miami Confederacy, an alliance of 8 Indian nations who terrorized Americans. 18. Why did distillers in Pennsylvania rebel in 1794? Ã¢â¬ ¢HamiltonÃ¢â¬â¢s high excise tax weighted heavily on the homespun pioneer folk in the south. They thought of it as a tax on a grat luxury but as a burden on an economic necessity and a medium of exchange. 2. `9. Why was WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s action regarding the whiskey rebellion significant? Ã¢â¬ ¢It was significant because Washington brought to gather a group of militia to crush a rebellion in another state. Most people didnÃ¢â¬â¢t think they would have the guts to attack another state. Ã¢â¬ ¢Washingto nÃ¢â¬â¢s government commanded a new respect after the rebellion. 3. Understand the differences between the federalists and democratic-Republicans. Ã¢â¬ ¢Federelalists: Ruled by the Ã¢â¬Å"best peopleÃ¢â¬ and wanted a powerful central government.They had a loose interpretation of the Constitution. Ã¢â¬ ¢Democratic-Republican: Wanted a weak central government but power within the states. They had a strict interpretation of the Constitution. 4. What was the Democratic-Republican position on the French Revolution? Ã¢â¬ ¢They thought that if a few thousand aristocratic people had to die for freedom then it was a fair price to pay. 5. What was WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s position on the war in Europe? Ã¢â¬ ¢Washington, who was backed by Hamilton, believed that war should be avoided at all costs if it can be. 6. What was the Neutrality proclamation and how did the Jeffersonian react to it? This document proclaimed the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s official neutrality in the conflict in Europe Ã¢â¬ ¢It also sternly warned American citizens to be impartial toward both armed camps. Ã¢â¬ ¢The Jeffersonians were enraged by the neutrality proclamation and they were also angry towards how he presented the proclamation, how he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t even conult Congress. 7. Who is Citizen Genet? Ã¢â¬ ¢He is a 30 year old Representative of the French Republic. Ã¢â¬ ¢He took advantage of the new French American alliance and undertook to fit out privateers. 8. How did Great Britain violate the Peace of Paris of 1783? They have been holding the chain of northern frontier posts on U. S soil for ten years. 26. Who was Mad Anthony Wayne? What were the terms of the Treaty of Grenville? Ã¢â¬ ¢Mad Anthony Wayne was an army general. Ã¢â¬ ¢The treaty of Grenville was signed in August 1795. Ã¢â¬ ¢The confederacy gave up vast tracts of the Old Northwest and in exchange the Indians received a lump-sum payment of $20,000 and an annual annuity of $9,000. Also the rights to hunt in any lands they wanted and recognition of their sovereignty. 27. What action did the British take against American ships in the Caribbean? The British ships attacked the French West Indies and seized about three hundred American merchant ships in the West Indies. 28. Explain the terms of JayÃ¢â¬â¢s Treaty and the JeffersonianÃ¢â¬â¢s reaction to it. Ã¢â¬ ¢The British agreed to evacuate their posts in the U. S and also to pay for the damages caused in the recent seizures of American ships. The British didnÃ¢â¬â¢t speak of any future attacks however. Ã¢â¬ ¢The JeffersonianÃ¢â¬â¢s were filled with rage because the treaty seemed like an abject surrender to Britain. 29. What was PinckneyÃ¢â¬â¢s Treaty? Ã¢â¬ ¢This treated with Spain gave the U.S basically everything they wanted including navigation throughout the Mississippi and the large disputed territory of north Florida. 13. What did Washington warn of in his farewell address? Ã¢â¬ ¢Washington strongly suggested staying away from permanent all iances such as the Franco-American alliance. Ã¢â¬ ¢Washington did not oppose alliances but simply believed temporary alliances were best. 14. Who ran for President in 1796? What was the result of the election? Ã¢â¬ ¢John Adams and Thomas Jefferson ran for President. Ã¢â¬ ¢John Adams won the election by a small margin and therefore Jefferson became vice president since he was runner up. 5. Explain the XYZ affair Ã¢â¬ ¢This was a political and diplomatic episode where AdamsÃ¢â¬â¢s envoys were approached secretly by here go-betweens. 16. How did the United States prepare for war with France? Ã¢â¬ ¢They worked very fast, creating a navy department and expanding the three-ship navy. Ã¢â¬ ¢The Marine Corps was reestablished and a new army of ten thousand men was authorized. 17. What was the Convention of 1800? Ã¢â¬ ¢A treaty was signed in Paris where France agreed to annul the twenty-two-year-old marriage of convenience but the United States agreed to pay the damage claims of Ame rican shippers. 8. Explain the Alien and Sedition Acts. Ã¢â¬ ¢The Sedition act basically took away freedom of speech and press from citizens. The law provided that anyone who impeded the policies of the government or falsely defamed its officials such as the president was to be fined and imprisoned. Ã¢â¬ ¢The Alien acts consists of the federalist Congress created a disheartening barrier for the Ã¢â¬Å"dregsÃ¢â¬ wanting to come in from Europe. Also one of the laws hit hard on immigrants, it allowed the president to deport dangerous foreigners in time of peace and to deport or imprison them in times of hostility.
Friday, September 13, 2019
Are We Too Dependent on the Computer - Essay Example One of the major advantages of computers can be identified as its assistance to perform the data entry process quicker and accurate at the same time. Storing a document in a computer does not take much space being organized in a systematic manner and, thus, the user can store a large number of files avoiding chaos while searching for a particular one. It further helps the user to automate a variety of tasks that the user cannot perform manually at a rapid pace along with accuracy (Hefner 21-39). Importance of computers has also increased astonishingly in the present phenomenon owing to the usage of internet to convey information through a systematic way of computer networks irrespective of the geographical distance, as well as engaging minimal costs. Internet is further identified to be used by various professionals ranging from healthcare service providers to defense forces around the world operating in terms of an information hub which, in turn, encourages the usage of computers in various economic sectors. Social networking sites, such as Facebook, Twitter, and MySpace, have emerged as an inevitable trend in the modern phenomenon which again explores the significance or rather the inclusion of computers in the modern day human society. Along with accumulating the required information, one can even shop online, thereby increasing the role of computers in the day to day lifestyle (Hefner 21-39). Even robots are often regarded to have emerged as an inseparable part of the modern human society. It is in this context that robots can be identified to play a major role in contributing to the overall efficiency of medical sciences and even defense oriented sectors. Other than these sectors, the robots have further emerged as a vital player in the field of astronomy as well. From a generalized point of view, almost in every technology based sectors, such as household appliance manufacturers, automobile manufacturers, agricultural sectors, construction business proces ses, as well as communication segments, the inclusion of computers and robotics are evident. During the process or innovation, measurement or evaluation and even during the execution of developmental process, computer technology plays a vital role (Chen, Minodora and Gligorescu 49-52). This particular phenomenon often tends to exhibit a situation where critiques perceive that human society is increasingly becoming dependent on computers to execute its daily functions. Nowadays, the world is increasingly getting indulged with the use of computers; however, from an in-depth point of view, it can be examined that mankind is yet not completely dependent upon computers. In favor of this argument, it can be noted that there is a number of works that computers lack in performing as efficiently as human beings such as understanding the psychological framework of the human behavior in a particular individual through observation. As computers are currently indulged in most of the sectors, inc luding medical sciences, hospitality and educational departments among others, it can indeed be regarded as a very essential tool to encourage the progress of human society at large. However, for example, in the educational sector, where information and knowledge are required in abundance, studies are to be conducted by the
Thursday, September 12, 2019
E85 gas vs. regular gas - Essay Example Today, E85 is produced from pole to pole and has a strategic role in energy policies of many countries (Kraemer, 2006, p. 128). This paper is to give a general overview of all pros and cons of ethanol use in America specifically. According to the Energy Policy Act of 2005, U.S. fuel suppliers, in the period of 2006-2012, have to increase the amount of added into fuel ethanol from 15 to 28 billion liters. Nowadays, for comparison, the United States consumes annually about 545 billion liters of regular gasoline. However, as a result of the Congress legislative initiatives, more than two trillion miles have been on traveled over, in last 25 years, on fuel mixed with ethanol. Most automobile companies increase production of flexible-fuel vehicles. As a consequence, most modern cars have automated fuel control systems allowing regulating air - fuel ratio sufficiently enough for simultaneous use of E85 and regular gasoline. For example, Ford, a leader in production of environmentally frien dly vehicles, has a range of Flexible Fuel - vehicles that run on E85, pure gasoline, pure ethanol E100 or any mixture of gasoline and ethanol (Focus, C-MAX, Mondeo, Galaxy, S-MAX, F-150, Ford Sedans Crown Victoria, Mercury Grand Marquis, Lincoln Town Car, Escape Hybrid E85) (Byrge & Kliesen, 2008, p. 5). Global interest in alternative (renewable) fuels was imposed, first of all, by different national environmental programs. It is known that the use of renewable fuels in a given region can reduce: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Greenhouse gas emission - by 14 Ã¢â¬â 19% (9, 5 million tons of Ã ¡ÃÅ¾2 in 2008); Ã¢â¬ ¢ Consumption of petroleum products - by 73 - 75 %; Ã¢â¬ ¢ Use of fossil fuels - by 13 - 35 %. In addition to the environmental aspect, use of ethanol - gasoline mixes (E85) has the following advantages compared to regular gasoline: higher octane number, which means lower wear and increased life of a car engine; reduced vehiclesÃ¢â¬â¢ service charges; lower cost of E85 at retail; product ion of ethanol supports national economy (agriculture mainly, processing industry and transportation inter alia) (Dale & Pimentel, 2008, p .22). But itÃ¢â¬â¢s totally wrong to consider that the use of ethanol has only advantages. Indeed, ethanol allows reducing pollution to some extent, since less carbon monoxide (CO) is emitted during its use. But, because of the high Reid Vapor Pressure, acetaldehyde and nitrogen oxides (NOx) are released, which produce more smog (Cunningham, 2007, p. 280). Companies, that manufacture and operate pipe lines, refuse to add pure 100% ethanol or ethanol containing fuels into their pines because of corrosion. So, starting from 2006, there is a constant shortage of rail-tanks for ethanol transportation. More and more fossil fuels (such as diesel and gasolin
Wednesday, September 11, 2019
Junior Curriculum - Essay Example The qualification for attending this certificate exam is three years of secondary education or 14 years of age.1 The Third year exam is called 9th grade and sixth year exam is called 12th grade. The third year exam is called junior certificate and sixth year exam is called leaving certificate. This leaving certificate can be termed as basis for higher education. If a student fails to qualify, he/she can take the examination next year. This is not as easy as it was said. The literature part changes from year to year.2 This make difficult for the students who fail in the first attempt to pass in the next attempt. The changes in some subjects will nullify their effort in the previous year and this makes the efforts in previous year not useful in the second attempt. This is capable of making some weak minded students to drop out if they fail in first attempt. Ireland introduced free secondary education in 1967. This has opened up secondary and the third level education to the people who till now, could not afford to attend to school.1 Though the secondary education completion rates are very high according to international standards, there is no statistical proof that all the primary school promoted students are enrolling them selves to secondary level education. This tells that the secondary level education or junior certificate curriculum is doing nothing to prevent dropouts from the schools. The optional subjects must be ch... Irish, English, Mathematics, Civic Social and political education, social, personal and health education. The social personal and health education subject was not examined. It is not mandatory to pass in this examination. The optional subjects must be chosen from the ancient Greek, art, craft and designing, business studies, classical studies, environmental and social studies, French, Geography, German, Hebrew studies, Home economics, Italian, Latin, materials technology wood, metal work, music, religious education, science Spanish, technical graphics, technology and type writing. The students have to study the five or 8 more optional subjects along with four mandatory subjects. The final exam will be after 3 years. The higher in this certificate is known as honours and ordinary one is considered as pass. The honours level will be taken for optional subjects. Development of Secondary Education in Ireland Before the World War II, the secondary education in Ireland was not up to the mark and even expensive. In the post war period, free education was provided till the age of 14 for every child. The tripartite system was introduced in that period. At the final year of their primary education children used to take the eleven + examination. After that they were sent to secondary modern, secondary technical or grammar schools. After 1950 the tripartite system was not found viable and the comprehensive schools gradually increased across Ireland. The comprehensives schools established in 50s structured themselves on the basis of the grammar school. After 1960 an alternative model was offered by introducing the progressive ideals in the education curriculum. Discipline and character were given due importance. After 1970 a large number of comprehensive schools
Tuesday, September 10, 2019
Employment Law Compliance Plan - Essay Example Any form of business should follow the compliance laws that have been set specifically to regulate the way the customers and the clients are interacting with it (Fox, 2013). These laws are also important in stating categorically how employers ought to deal with their employees, their responsibilities and the duties that they should perform. Compliance laws are found both at the state level and in the lower levels and the businesses that are run in a given location should adhere to both. The rights of the employees are very important and the cries and pleas made to the government have made the laws to be followed stringently and the violators handled mercilessly. In the next part I will put across some of the laws that need to be considered in the handling of employees and that can lead to confrontations if not addressed well. This law states that all businesses that are formed must adhere to it. No employee should be shown any form of discrimination on the basis of his or her race, gender or color. This means that an employee that feels his rights were infringed into by the organization or the business that he is working for can forward his claim to the related authorities and a legal act taken against the employer. The three form the basis of many cases of discrimination and with their address it means that employees rightsÃ¢â¬â¢ are safe guarded and hence improving the relations in the working environment. Abbreviated ADEA, this act states that the rights of an employee who is beyond forty years must be safe guarded. No employee should therefore be subjected to any form of discrimination whether physical or otherwise by virtue of his age. Those people who are seeking employment at their advanced ages are also amply covered by the act as it seeks a fair platform where all the people wanting to be employed can be given a chance to present their reasons why they should be employed. In many circumstances organizations
Development of a microfluidic device for extraction - Essay Example This newly microfluidic device for protein extraction may find an application in the area of proteomic research. Keywords: Microfluidic device; Sol-gel; Silica monolith; Protein extraction; Octadecyl (C18) 1. Introduction It is becoming increasingly important in the development of new medicines to use important a microfluidic tool for identifying proteins implicated in disease pathways. As the search for novel molecules to tackle diseases increases, the need to identify proteins on biological targets also increases. Efficient extraction of proteins is the most critical step for proteomics by removing the interfering materials and improving the detection sensitivity (Ahn & Wang, 2008). The recently invented silica monolithic materials are highly permeable to liquid flow and have high mass transport compared with the packed beds. Moreover, the monolithic stationary phase does not need frits, which can cause air bubbles to form and the proteins can be adsorbed into the frits and remain trapped (Cabrera et al., 2002 ). Fabrication silica monolith inside the microfluidic devices can decrease the volume of the sample and the reagents, and reduce the time of the analysis (Girault et al., 2004). Bienvenue et al. (2006) have observed that the negative aspect of the sol-gel monolith in microfluidic device is the fact that it shrinks while the monolith is formed. They further explain that this is can then cause the creation of an opening between the silica network and the microchip wall resulting in reduced surface area for protein adsoption. The aim of this contribution is to investigate the fabrication of a simple microfluidic device contained in a crack-free silica monolith to decrease sample handling, reduce contamination, be truly portable, and decrease analysis time. Moreover, its aim is to modify the surface of the silica monolith to Octadecyl silica (ODS) to use it for pre-concentration and extraction of proteins. 2. Materials and methods 2.1. Chemicals and materi als Poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) MW=10,000 Da, trimethylchlorosilane, tetramethylorthosilicate 99 % (TMOS), chlorodimethyloctadecylsilane 95 %, 2,6-lutidine 99 %, NaCl, and trizma base were purchased from Sigma Aldrich (Poole, UK) and used as received without any further purification. Bovine pancreas insulin, bovine heart cytochrome C, chicken egg white lysozyme, ?-lactoglobulin from milk bovine, haemoglobin from human, and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were purchased from the same. Nitric acid, ammonia, toluene, HPLC grade acetonitrile (ACN), and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) was obtained from Fisher Scientific UK Ltd. (Loughborough, UK). MicroTight Adapter was purchased from Kinesis (Cambs, UK). Poly (ether ether ketone) (PEEK) tubing was purchased from Anachem (Luton, UK). 2.2. Instrumentation Baby bee syringe pump from Bioanalytical System Inc. (West Lafayette, USA). The instrument used for detection was HPLC-UV detection: 785A UV/Visible Detector from Perkin Elmer (California, USA). T he reversed-phase analytical column was Symmetry C8 column, 4.6 mm ? 250 mm packed with silica particles (size 5 Ã µm) from Thermo Fisher Scientific (Loughborough, UK). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) (EVO 60. Manufacturer: Carl Zeiss Ltd. (Welwyn Garden City, UK). SEMPREP 2 Sputter Coater from Nanotechnology Ltd. (Sandy, UK). 2.3. Fabrication of the silica-based
Monday, September 9, 2019
Analysis of Body Language - Article Example For example, nod when saying no, and shake your head when saying yes. In his article, Ã¢â¬ËWhat You DonÃ¢â¬â¢t Know about Body Language - but ShouldÃ¢â¬â¢, Nick Morgan asserts that one given gesture may have meaning, and may be interpreted differently (Morgan, 2012). Even so, there are widely accepted meanings to various gestures. For instance, wide-open eyes imply interest. According to the author, effective communication encompasses both verbal and nonverbal communication. When communicating, it is important to pay attention not only to the spoken words but also to the body language. It is argued that body language is more truthful as compared with the spoken word. The human needs, feelings, emotions, intentions, and thoughts are thought to be controlled by the limbic system in the brain. This part tends to react to the world in real times and this is shown by the way the body reacts through the various gestures. These gestures have evolved in people globally. An extensive analysis of President Barrack ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s body language has exposed that his body language tends to change from location to location as well as form speech to speech. Also, his body language cues tend to differ in debates and interviews that they are in speeches. Nonverbally, President Obama is an emotional man. A more explicit example is his Tuesday, January 24, 2012 State of the Union Address, whose nonverbal communication with regards to the use of body language was excellent. One eminent gesture throughout the speech was his smile. The smile on his face made him appear genuine. The human brain tends to prefer happy faces as opposed to those faces with negative expressions. His verbal and nonverbal alignments during the speech were on point. His body language supported his message such that it could easily make people believe that he really meant what he said. He looked comfortable and composed. He walked with ease, stood with ease, and all his gestures were fluid and flowing. Ã
Sunday, September 8, 2019
MYOB-analysis - Essay Example The past three yearsÃ¢â¬â¢ accounts should be provided as a minimum, to enable a full financial assessment that reveals trading patterns and trends in the areas of liquidity, profitability, the speed of debtor and creditor payments, sales and their associated costs, as well as expenses and ownerÃ¢â¬â¢s drawings. Information providing the reasons for the proposed expansion of the business and why a partnership approach has been chosen, rather than, say, a bank or other loan. The proposal as it stands seems to allow Chris Wren to take advantage of the increased capital base provided by a partnerÃ¢â¬â¢s investment, without giving them any say in how the business is run or allowing them to get involved. He wants more supporting funds, and he wants to continue running the business as he has been doing for the past few years, which may not be the best way to do it. If the new partner is not to undertake any work, who will be doing the extra work that an expansion should be aiming to acquire? There are no projections for increases in sales or the associated increased cost of sales and supporting expenses. There is no business plan at all and a basic plan should be in place at the moment to provide an objective for the business to achieve. If there is no plan, then what precisely is the investment needed for? WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s in it for the potential investor, specifically? What sort of profit levels will be generated by the expanded business and what rate of return does this represent? How does this compare with other businesses in the same sector, or a basic bank savings account or perhaps a managed stock market investment plan? Why is this a good idea for the investor? Important information that cannot be provided in numbers is missing, such as the business reputation and skill and experience of staff. Non-financial information, such as firm location, supplier and customer relationships and business
Saturday, September 7, 2019
Case Study Example Organizational vision relates to CFP quest to have value added to all the panels by having finished hardwood plywood and veneer. CFP offers state of the art hardwood plywood panels and interior hardwood veneers targeting customers in need of high-end cabinetry, architectural millwork, fine furniture and fixtures for commercial enterprises. While operating in the forest product industry, the company has identified the need for innovative approaches to meeting customer need while also focusing on meeting its sustainability objectives based on environmental friendly products (Tokarczyk and Hansen, 2006). Stakeholders in the organization in CFP include the employees who are also the owners of the organization. Existing employees bought CFP in 1976 gaining ownership from Columbia Plywood Corporation. Changes were in the ownership plan through introduction of Employee Stock Ownership Plan, which led to reorganization of the company leading to changing of name into CFP Inc (Reference for Business, n.d). Ownership by employees is an important step that ensures welfare of the workers remains an important concern of the company particularly when designing polices on worker remuneration and other important terms of service. Search for sustainability and meeting of various regulatory commitment means the United States Green Building Council (USGBC) is also a stakeholder in CFP. CFP is committed to working with USGBC to achieve organizational objective of producing environmental friendly products while also facilitating USGBCÃ¢â¬â¢s goal of ensuring accessible green building. The state and local government also plays a significant role that influences the operations of CFP with efforts directed at increasing the number of green buildings while also providing new ratings systems for products in the industry (Marshall, Anderson, Flax, Gambetta, Greene-Powell and Pullman, 2010). Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) is also a stakeholder in the operations
Friday, September 6, 2019
Law Conflicts Essay Situational Analysis on Children in Conflict with the Law and the Juvenile Justice System Atty. Sedfrey Candelaria; Atty. Aleli Domingo; Amanda Roselle Abrera; Geo Carbonell; Ma. Victoria Cardona and Tricia Oco Adhikain Para sa Karapatang Pambata (AKAP) of the Ateneo Human Rights Center, Ateneo Law School and United Nations ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Fund, 1998. E-mail: [emailprotected]/ [emailprotected] The Philippine Senate, through Resolution No. 109 dated July 20, 1990 ratified the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) paving the way for the ConventionÃ¢â¬â¢s implementation at the domestic level. This afforded children the set of protective rights related to the juvenile justice system under Articles 37, 39, and 40. The Philippine Government submitted its compliance commentaries on these provisions in its Initial Report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child in 1993. In response, the CRC committee submitted the following principal concerns: Ã¢â¬ ¢ need for national legislation to conform with the convention Ã¢â¬ ¢ need for efficient mechanisms to monitor the situation of these children in conflict with the law Ã¢â¬ ¢ need for compatibility of the present juvenile justice system to the principles and provisions of the convention and other international standards The development of a situational analysis on children in conflict with the law and the juvenile justice system is deemed necessary to guide policy-makers in implementing effective programs and procedures to protect the rights of the child. Purpose of the Research Last May 7, 1997, a consultative meeting was conducted, with representatives from the five pillars of criminal justice: law enforcement, prosecution, courts, correction and the community. The main purpose was to gather more data and to validate initial observationsÃ and analysis on the status of juvenile justice administration in the Philippines. The objectives of the research were therefore constituted as follows: Ã¢â¬ ¢ To analyze data and existing studies on children in conflict with the law; Ã¢â¬ ¢ To assess the current situation of the administration of juvenile justice in light of the principles and relevant provisions of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (e.g. Articles 37, 39 and 40); and Ã¢â¬ ¢ To recommend practical and achievable steps toward reforming the juvenile justice system. Methodology The research team reviewed the data covering 1993 to 1997 on various aspects of the juvenile justice process. This was derived from existing studies, surveys or reports prepared by a number of groups concerned with children in conflict with the law. These materials were supplemented by actual interviews and responses to questionnaires sent to selected institutional respondents. A series of dialogues with judges of designated courts for childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s cases were also conducted from April to June 1997. Findings The data reveals that while there are Philippine laws, rules and regulations applicable to children in conflict with the law, prosecution and trial procedures in general do not make distinctions between adult and youthful offenders facing charges before the courts. As regards the profile of the Filipino child in conflict with the law, findings show that the youthful offender is: usually male; between the ages of fourteen (14) to seventeen (17) years; an elementary graduate; a middle child from a low-income family with four (4) to six (6) members; charged with property related crimes (robbery and theft); and, exposed to drugs or gang influence. The experience of a number of youthful offenders with the various stages of the juvenile justice process reveals occasional neglect and insensitivity by duty holders. Analysis The following is a brief analysis of the three sub-sections pertaining to the legal framework and processes, institutional framework, and the narrative and statistical report. It will underscore the strengths as well the gaps of the Philippine juvenile justice system as these affect the rights of children in conflict with the law. The discussion of the Philippine legal framework and processes tend to confirm the state of legislative reform in this country, particularly in regard to juvenile justice, as observed by the Committee on the Rights of the Child. It further affirms that while there are laws protecting the rights of children in conflict with the law, Philippine legislators have yet to seriously consider reviewing existing laws. In terms of priority, existing jurisdiction of designated courts over juvenile and domestic relations cases, including cases of youthful offenders, needs to be enhanced by passing legislation on the creation of child and family courts. In line with this reorganization, procedural rules applicable to these courts will be necessary. Therefore, findings of this report on the conduct of court proceedings involving children clearly support: Ã¢â¬ ¢ a move towards restructuring the jurisdiction of some lower courts ; Ã¢â¬ ¢ a set of procedural rules in the handling of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s cases; and a set of clear-cut criteria for appointment of judges to a specialized child and family court. Various surveys and studies reveal an interesting finding on the average age of youthful offenders to be mostly male and between fourteen (14) andmseventeen (17) years of age. Indeed, this is rather significant in light of the observation of the Committee on the Rights of the Child that Philippine substantive law on the age of penal responsibility is quite low (below nine (9) years). Socio-cultural factors, however, must be closely considered when reviewing the present standard contained in our penal laws and the Child and Youth Welfare Code. Other substantive rights, such as, the constitutional guarantees of an accused are adequately covered by existing laws. The application and practice of these rights in favor of children facing the justice system do not seem to be monitored effectively by the key institutions of the juvenile justice system. An example is the lack of quantitative and qualitative data from the enforcement and judicial sectors concerning compliance with the constitutional and CRC standards on the rights of the youthful offenders at the apprehension, investigation, and trial stages. Selected incidents of violations of the rights of some children arrested, investigated and tried before the courts, as narrated in this report, tend to suggest that there may be more of these incidents in practice occurring at various stages of the juvenile justice process. Non-observance of the CRC standards may be attributed to inadequate training and lack of sensitivity of some law enforcement personnel, prosecutors and even judges in handling of cases of children in conflict with the law. Given the limits of the existing procedural system dealing with youthful offenders, police, prosecutors and judges have sufficient discretion occasionally to ensure that the procedural laws aim at diversion measures rather than passively allow an investigation or judicial process to proceed. It has been emphasized in the said report that every measure be taken to avoid placing the child within the often stressful environment of litigation. Sometimes, this is even aggravated by the protracted delays in the disposition of cases contrary to conventional standards of speedy justice. A more disturbing reality is the unfortunate condition faced by most detained and sentenced youthful offenders in public jails and similar institutions.Ã Despite clearly stated guidelines, laws and policies regarding the treatment of detained and sentenced juveniles, there exists a startling disregard for a most basic standard. Such is the segregation of children from adult offenders inside detention centers or jails. This continues to stand out as a sore thumb in our review of existing practices on this issue. The objectives of the juvenile justice system could easily be eroded by this situation of youth offenders in detention or those serving sentence. Neither do most physical facilities and development opportunities for detained or sentenced children adequately meet the standards set by the CRC and related U.N. guidelines. The budget allocated by the government for food and other basic necessities hardly promotes the standard to meet all the requirements of health and human dignity. Rehabilitation programs through (non-institutional) community-based services are being resorted to more often by DSWD. This is a move towards the right direction. However, support services are needed in the form of financial assistance, education, and employment for the returning youthful offender. Conclusions One of the remarkable contributions of the CRC to the issue of juvenile justice is the emphasis made on the impact of societal conditions on the growth and development of a child. Several factors contribute to a childÃ¢â¬â¢s transformation either into an accomplished member of society or one who finds himself or herself in conflict with the law. Within the context of duties and responsibilities, it may be argued that those with the primary right and duty in the rearing of a child deserve the unqualified support of the State authorities and institutions through the creation of an environment conducive to the wholesome development of a child. This research has confirmed that the situation of children in conflict with the law was better understood when viewed not only within the limited context of the commission of the crime itself. Instead, it focused more directly on the failure of some duty-holders to provide for an environmentÃ that can promote the fullest potential of a child. A convergence of circumstances more often places the child in a situation leading to the commission of a crime. A dysfunctional family relationship, poverty or peer influence create conditions which may push the youth towards conflict with the law. In the Philippine juvenile justice system, the child generally enjoys guarantees distinguishable from adults. However, the judicial process itself, consisting of the criminal procedure and the rules of admissibility of evidence, does not provide an exclusive mode of conducing trial. The juveniles, as accused before courts of general jurisdiction, are designated to a juvenile and domestic relations court. There is a general impression that the revival of exclusive child and family courts may be contribute towards effective management of cases of youthful offenders. The experience of some Filipino youthful offenders with the justice system has been characterized occasionally with neglect and insensitivity by a number of judges, prosecutors and private lawyers, notwithstanding the well-entrenched judicial guarantees. This is not to overlook, however, the recent efforts of inter-agency task forces aimed at raising awareness of the legal profession on the conditions of children in conflict with the law. SocietyÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude towards returning youthful offenders or those in community-based rehabilitation programs is crucial in successfully reintegrating these children. The present report underscores the vulnerability of those youthful offenders staying in Ã¢â¬Å"closedÃ¢â¬ institutions and prisons. Recommendations After careful analysis and investigation of the situation of children in conflict with the law and realizing the many gaps of the Philippine juvenile justice system, the following recommendations were drawn: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Law enforcement officers, prosecutors, judges, court social welfare officers, public attorneys and legal aid groups should be given orientation seminarsÃ on international human rights instruments and child-related laws with emphasis on juvenile justice Ã¢â¬ ¢ Government agencies and institutions engaged in defending youthful offenders should coordinate their efforts in providing protection to these children by establishing a common monitoring system covering the various stages of the juvenile justice system process. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Specialized juvenile and domestic relations courts should be created. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Support programs for streetchildren and other similarly vulnerable children should be increased as preventive measures. Ã¢â¬ ¢ More facilities exclusively for children who are detained and sentenced should be constructed to prevent mingling with adult offenders. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Community awareness of and involvement in non-institutional rehabilitation programs and services should be enhanced. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Non-governmental organizations engaged in multi-disciplinary outreach programs with children in conflict with the law should form a network to maximize extension of assistance of these children. Ã¢â¬ ¢ A comprehensive review of existing laws and procedures on juvenile justice in light of the CRC and other international standard-setting instruments affecting children in conflict with the law should be undertaken for purposes of law reform.